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Coast Pilot 7 - Chapter 11 - Edition 49, 2017



Columbia River to Strait of Juan De Fuca, Washington

(1) This chapter describes the Pacific coast of the State of Washington from the Washington-Oregon border at the mouth of the Columbia River to the northwesternmost point at Cape Flattery. The deep-draft ports of South Bend and Raymond, in Willapa Bay, and the deep-draft ports of Hoquiam and Aberdeen, in Grays Harbor, are described. In addition, the fishing port of La Push is described. The most outlying dangers are Destruction Island and Umatilla Reef. A U.S. Navy operating/exercise area parallels the coastline from about 10 miles north of Point Brown to Cape Alava, extending from 3 miles offshore to about 50 miles offshore.

(2) The Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary off the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, including the waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, extends from Koitlah Point due north to the international boundary seaward to the 100 fathom isobath, thence southward to a point due west of the mouth of the Copalis River cutting across the heads of Nitnat, Juan de Fuca, and Quinault Canyons. (See 15 CFR 922 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(3) Area to be Avoided, Washington Coast
(4) The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted the waters off the Washington Coast as an area to be avoided. (See IMO SN circular 309.) In order to reduce the risk of a marine casualty and resulting pollution and damage to the environment of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, all ships and barges that carry oil or hazardous materials in bulk as cargo or cargo residue and all ships 400 gross tonnage and above solely in transit should avoid the area bounded by a line connecting the following points:

(5) 48°23.30'N., 124°38.20'W.

(6) 48°24.17'N., 124°38.20'W.

(7) 48°26.15'N., 124°44.65'W.

(8) 48°26.15'N., 124°52.80'W.

(9) 48°24.67'N., 124°55.71'W.

(10) 47°51.70'N., 125°15.50'W.

(11) 47°07.70'N., 124°47.50'W.

(12) 47°07.70'N., 124°11.00'W.

(13) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(14) The lines established for this part of the coast are described in 33 CFR 80.1370 through 80.1380 chapter 2.

(15) 
 Chart 18500

(16) From Cape Disappointment, the coast extends north for 22 miles to Willapa Bay as a low sandy beach, with sandy ridges about 20 feet high parallel with the shore. Back of the beach, the country is heavily wooded. Numerous summer resorts and cottages are along the beach. Landmarks along this section of the coast are few. The 10–fathom curve averages a distance of about 2.5 miles from the shore. There are no known offlying dangers south of the Willapa Bay entrance bar.

(17) Weather, Columbia River to Strait of Juan De Fuca
(18) The weather along this coast is usually mild, windy, and rainy in winter, cool and pleasant in summer, with some periods of fog. Close to shore, and particularly in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, wind and fog conditions are often local and different from conditions offshore. Radiation fog often blankets these bodies of water, as well as rivers and shore points, in fall and winter. It can form any time when nights are clear and calm.

(19) Storms that move along this coast or a distance out to sea bring cloudy days with highs in the mid-forties (6.1° to 8.3°C) and lows in the middle to upper thirties (3.3° to 3.9°C). In winter, they cause rain on about 15 to 25 days per month and significant snow on 2 or 3 days. They are responsible for predominantly east to southeast winds from October through March; these winds reach gale force 3 to 6 percent of the time. In the intermittent periods of settled weather, sound becomes an early morning hazard over rivers and protected bays. Visibilities drop below 0.5 mile (0.9 km) on 3 to 4 days per month, from October to February.

(20) With the coming of spring, conditions improve. Storms become less frequent. Winds diminish and blow more from a west direction. Temperatures often rise into the low to middle fifties (11° to 13°C) during the day and fall to the low forties (5.0° to 5.6°C) at night. Visibilities are usually good, and rain falls on just 8 to 15 days per month.

(21) Summer is the true fog season along these shores. In general, advection fog reduces visibilities to below 0.5 mile (0.9 km) on 3 to 10 days per month; up to 16 days per month at Tatoosh Island. Sound signals blow 15 to 30 percent of the time. Conditions are worst in Grays Harbor and near the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Temperatures are often in the sixties (16.1° to 20.6°C) during the day and around 50°F (10°C) at night. Winds are from a west to northwest direction and usually less than 17 knots; calms occur up to 12 percent of the time. It rains on about 5 to 10 days per month.

(22) Fog remains a problem in autumn, although it is less frequent. Temperatures drop slowly with daytime readings often in the low to midsixties (16.1° to 19.4°C), dropping to the upper forties (8.9° to 9.4°C) at night. Rain falls more often. Winds become stronger and return to an east direction.


(24) 
 Chart 18504

(25) Willapa Bay entrance is 24 miles north of the Columbia River entrance. The bay is used primarily by fishing and oyster boats. No deep-draft vessels have entered Willapa Bay since 1976. Oyster beds cover much of the shoaler areas of the bay. Lumber, fish and other sea foods are shipped by rail and truck from South Bend and Raymond.

(26) 
 Prominent features
(27) Leadbetter Point the north extremity of North Beach Peninsula is the south point of the entrance to Willapa Bay. It is low and sandy, and has no distinctive feature to mark its extremity; the chart limit of the trees is 2.2 miles south.

(28) Cape Shoalwater the north point at the entrance, terminates in a low bluff about 50 feet high. The cape is sandy and the north portion is covered with trees to within 300 yards of the point.

(29) The north shore of the entrance to the bay is marked by timbered bluffs and ridges, several hundred feet high. In the daytime, scars on the cliffs often are visible before the light can be seen. The termination of the tree line on Leadbetter Point is sharply defined.

(30) The entrance is in the north part of the bay and has two arms; the south arm is 18 miles long and the east is 10 miles long. Both arms are filled with extensive shoals; large areas that bare at low water. The south arm is separated from the ocean by a strip of low sand and sand dunes, averaging 1.5 miles in width and covered with trees until within 2.2 miles of Leadbetter Point. Numerous cottages and summer resorts are along the seaward face of the narrow peninsula. The shore of the bay elsewhere is composed of low, rolling hills, 100 to 200 feet high and covered with dense growths of timber.

(31) Willapa Bar extends about 3 miles outside of a line joining Cape Shoalwater and Leadbetter Point. The bar channel is continually shifting and depths over it vary from season to season. The buoys marking the channel over the bar are non lateral and moved from time to time because of the shifting sands and changing channel. Dredging range lights are temporarily established at the entrance at times during dredging operations. The entrance buoys and the dredging range lights do not necessarily mark the best water. The major channels in the bay are marked by aids to navigation.

(32) Willapa River flows into the east arm of the bay. Lights, daybeacons and a lighted range mark the channel through the east arm and Willapa River to South Bend and Raymond.

(33) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(34) The lines established for Willapa Bay are described in33 CFR80.1370 chapter 2.

(35) 
 Regulated Navigation Area
(36) A regulated navigation area surrounds the entrance of Willapa Bay. See 33 CFR 165.1325 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.

(37) 
 Channels
(38) A Federal project provides for a 26-foot channel over the bar at the mouth of Willapa Bay, and a 24-foot channel from deep water in Willapa Bay to just above both forks of Willapa River at Raymond. The channel over the bar into Willapa Bay is subject to frequent change.

(39) 
 Anchorage
(40) Anchorage with good holding ground may be had at almost any point inside the bay. The anchorage generally used is off Toke Point in 30 to 40 feet.

(41) 
 Dangers
(42) An underwater dike, 18 feet below the surface, extends about 800 yards into the North Channel from a rock groin along the shore between Cape Shoalwater and North Cove in about 46°43'35"N., 124°03'30"W.

(43) 
 Currents
(44) In the entrance the current velocity is about 2.5 knots. Currents of 4 to 6 knots occur at times; the velocity is greatest on the ebb, particularly with south wind.

(45) In the channel at South Bend, the velocity is about 1.2 knots on the flood and 1.4 knots on the ebb. (See Tidal Current Tables for predictions for South Bend.)

(46) 
 Routes
(47) Approaching from any direction in any weather, great caution is essential. The currents are variable and uncertain. Velocities of 3 to 3.5 knots have been observed between Blunts Reef and the Swiftsure Bank, and velocities considerably in excess of these amounts have been reported. From seaward in clear weather, the lights at the entrance of Grays Harbor, 14 miles north, and at North Head, 22 miles south, are distinguishing marks for fixing a vessel’s position and the subsequent shaping of the course. Navigators should bear in mind the changeable nature of the bar. Strangers should not navigate the bay in thick weather.

(48) South Bend is on the south bank of Willapa River, 8 miles above Toke Point. The principal industries are lumbering, oystering and fishing; two canneries operate here. Willapa Harbor Airport is on the north bank of the river about 2.5 miles northwest of South Bend. Raymond the principal town, is on the south bank of Willapa River at the junction of the South Fork, 3 miles above South Bend. There are sawmills here and large quantities of lumber are shipped out.

(49) 
 Bridges
(50) There are no bridges over the main channel. The Burlington Northern railroad swing bridge across South Fork, 0.3 mile above its mouth, has a clearance of 8 feet. (See 33 CFR 117.1 through 117.59 and 117.1063(b) chapter 2, for drawbridge regulations.) Two fixed highway bridges over South Fork about 0.5 mile above the railroad swing bridge have a least clearance of 15 feet. The fixed highway bridge over North Fork at Raymond has a clearance of 20 feet. A railroad fixed bridge over Ellis Slough has a clearance of 24 feet.

(51) At The Narrows, 1 mile below the Port of Willapa Harbor wharf, the river is crossed by power cables with a minimum clearance of 165 feet.

(52) 
 Pilotage
(53) Pilotage for Grays Harbor, discussed later in this chapter, also pertains to Willapa Bay.

(54) 
 Towage
(55) Tugs to 2,200 hp are available at Hoquiam in Grays Harbor. Arrangements should be made in advance through ships’ agents or through the pilots.

(56) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration and agricultural quarantine
(57) Quarantine is enforced in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service. (See Public Health Service, chapter 1, for details.)

(58) 
 Supplies
(59) Diesel oil, gasoline, water, ice, and some marine supplies are available in South Bend and Raymond. Both South Bend and Raymond have small-craft moorages operated by the respective towns.

(60) 
 Repairs
(61) The largest of two marine railways at South Bend can handle vessels 60 feet long and 19½ feet wide for hull repairs. A nearby machine shop and foundry does some engine repair work.

(62) Tokeland on Toke Point is a summer resort. There is a dredged entrance channel and small-craft basin on the north side of the point. A light is on the outer end of a jetty on the south side and a daybeacon is on the north side of the entrance. In 2002, the controlling depth was 13.1 feet in the entrance channel to the basin; thence in 2000, the basin had depths of 9 to 13 feet, except for lesser depths along the southwest edge. Berths, gasoline, diesel fuel, water and ice are available either at the basin or nearby; a launching ramp is at the basin.

(63) North River which enters the east arm 2 miles east of Toke Point, is navigated by small logging launches. The channel is marked by private daybeacons and is navigable at high water to Eatons Ranch 3 miles above the last daybeacon.

(64) The south part of Willapa Bay is used by light-draft vessels. Bay Center is a village just south of Goose Point (46°38.2'N., 123°57.5'W.). It is one of the many oyster places in this bay with some fishing and crabbing. There are floats here for mooring fishing vessels; gasoline is available.

(65) The channel to Bay Center leads from deep water in Willapa Bay about 1.4 miles west-northwest of Goose Point, thence north of Goose Point, thence south into Palix River to the basin at Bay Center. The channel is marked by lights and daybeacons, and is subject to continual change.

(66) Palix River on the east side of the bay, is navigable for small logging tugboats and fishermen for about 1 mile up each of the three forks above their junction. The fixed highway bridge, about 1 mile below the forks, has a clearance of 25 feet.

(67) Nemah River Channel 5 miles south of Goose Point, is marked by private aids. Controlling depths are about 4 feet to Daybeacon 20, thence 2 feet to Lynn Point, thence 1 foot to the junction of South and Middle Nemah Rivers.

(68) Nahcotta Channel about 4.5 miles south of Goose Point, leads south between North Beach Peninsula on the west and Long Island Shoal and Long Island on the east to Shoalwater Bay. The channel is well marked and has depths greater than 20 feet.

(69) Stanley Channel leads from Nahcotta Channel at Long Island Junction Light, thence east of Long Island and Stanley Peninsula to the mouth of Naselle River. Shallow-draft boats with local knowledge can cross Long Island Shoal.

(70) Long Island 5.5 miles long in a northwest direction and of irregular width, lies in the south arm of the bay near the head. The island is wooded and rises to over 100 feet in elevation. The waters surrounding Long Island encompass the Willapa National Wildlife Refuge, the boundary of which is marked by numerous piles.

(71) Nahcotta on the east side of North Beach Peninsula, is a small village 9 miles south of Leadbetter Point. There are several large oyster plants here. The boat basin at Nahcotta has floats for small craft; diesel fuel and dry winter boat storage are available. In 2004, the channel leading from deep water in Nahcotta Channel to the basin had a controlling depth of 5 feet, thence depths of 4 to 6 feet were available in the basin except for lesser depths along the north edge and shoaling to bare in the northwest corner. The entrance to the basin is marked by lights.

(72) Naselle River on the east side of the bay, is navigable by boats of 5 feet or less draft, at half tide or higher water, as far as the bridge at the village of Naselle 10 miles above the mouth. This bridge marks the head of tide water at ordinary high tides. The river has numerous snags and submerged logs, and is crossed by power cables with least clearance of 60 feet; passage should not be attempted without local knowledge. Small logging and fishing boats operate on the river.

(73) Bear River enters at the southeast corner at the head of Shoalwater Bay. A long, tortuous, unmarked channel across the flats makes entrance to the river difficult. Vessels of 5-foot draft or less can make the fixed bridge about 1.5 miles above the mouth at half tide.

(74) 
 Chart 18500

(75) From Cape Shoalwater to Point Chehalis, the south point at the entrance to Grays Harbor, the coast extends for 11 miles as a low sand beach, backed by a heavy growth of timber.

(76) 
 Chart 18502

(77) Grays Harbor entrance is about 40 miles north of Cape Disappointment and 93 miles south of Cape Flattery. The bay and its tributaries furnish an outlet to an extensive timber area. Grays Harbor is an important lumber port in the foreign and domestic trade. Oil is delivered by tanker; logs, lumber, pulpwood, woodchips and biodiesel are shipped out.

(78) The bay at the entrance is about 1 mile wide, but shoals extending south from Damon Point and north from Westport reduce the navigable channel to a width of 0.6 mile. From its entrance the bay extends east for 15 miles to the mouth of Chehalis River. The bay is filled by shoals and flats that bare at low water and are cut by numerous channels.

(79) Point Chehalis is low and sandy and is bare of trees for 1.5 miles south of its extremity. A jetty extends 2 miles seaward from the end of the point, the outer mile of it being submerged. A seasonal sound signal is mid-length of the visible part of the jetty. A Coast Guard lookout tower is prominent on the point.

(80) Grays Harbor Light (46°53'18"N., 124°07'01"W.), 123 feet above the water, is shown from a 107-foot white truncated octagonal pyramidal tower on the seaward side of Point Chehalis.

(81) Point Brown the north entrance point is 1.8 miles northwest of Point Chehalis. The point is low, rounding and sandy, with shoals extending south and west which, together with those extending west from Point Chehalis, form the bar at the entrance. The point is wooded to within 0.5 miles of the extremity. A jetty extends west from the point. A wreck covered 24 feet is about 1.1 miles west of the jetty at 46°55'38"N., 124°12'30"W.

(82) A small-craft basin is northeast of the point. The entrance to the basin is marked by lights; the approach channel is marked by a line of lighted and unlighted dolphins. A submerged jetty extends about 0.6 mile northeast from the north side of the basin entrance. Reported depths of 5 feet are available through the natural channel leading to the basin with depths of 3 feet or less inside the basin due to silting.

(83) 
 Prominent features
(84) The country about Grays Harbor is flat and featureless, with few conspicuous objects. Saddle Hill (chart 18500), about 310 feet high, 8 miles north of the entrance and 2 miles inshore, is the most conspicuous feature.

(85) Grays Harbor Light shows prominently on a closer approach to the entrance. A micro tower, painted a red and white checkerboard pattern, is 3.6 miles north-northeast of the north jetty and a large rust-colored standpipe, lighted at night by floodlights, is 2.5 miles south-southeast of Point Chehalis. Both these objects are prominent on a closer approach and the standpipe is reported to be visible for a considerable distance at night. In clear weather, Brackenridge Bluff on the north shore 6 miles inside the entrance, is quite prominent. It is a reddish cliff about a mile long, rising in two places to a height of 80 feet; from seaward it is visible only through the entrance.

(86) In clear weather Neds Rock off Brackenridge Bluff, shows prominently from inside the entrance; it is reddish.

(87) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(88) The lines established for Grays Harbor are described in 33 CFR 80.1375 chapter 2.

(89) Grays Harbor is served by the Marine Exchange of Puget Sound. (See Marine Exchange of Puget Sound, chapter 13, for details).

(90) 
 Channels
(91) The entrance to Grays Harbor, between two jetties, is marked by two lighted ranges and buoys. Inside the bay, a Federal project channel provides depths of 46 feet across the bar, thence 42 to 40 feet in the entrance, thence 36 feet inside the bay to Cow Point, thence 32 feet to Cosmopolis, about 9 miles above the bay entrance. The channel inside the bay to Cosmopolis is well marked. There is no deep-draft navigation above Cosmopolis. (See Notices to Mariners and latest editions of the charts for controlling depths for the dredged channel.)

(92) The jettied entrance has a tendency to shoal at the curve on the Point Chehalis side. Submerged sections of the north and south jetties extend seaward about 0.2 and 0.9 mile, respectively, from the visible sections. Both north and south jetties should be given a wide berth during periods of heavy weather due to hazardous breakers. Lighted whistle buoys mark the approach and entrance to the bay. A seasonal sound signal is about mid-length of the visible section of the south jetty.


(94) 
 Anchorage
(95) The best anchorage is north of Westport and southeast of Damon Point in 30 to 60 feet. The holding ground is good, and there is more swinging room here than elsewhere in the harbor.

(96) 
 Currents
(97) In the entrance, the average current velocity is about 1.9 knots on the flood and 2.8 knots on the ebb, but velocities may reach 5 knots. In the channels through the bay, the velocities seldom exceed 3 knots. It was reported that currents in the vicinity of the bar are very erratic, setting north close inshore and south offshore. (See Tidal Current Tables for daily predictions at the entrance to Grays Harbor.)

(98) 
 Routes
(99) From north or south, the course should be shaped to make the entrance buoy. From seaward in clear weather, Saddle Hill, 8 miles north of the entrance, and Grays Harbor Light on Point Chehalis will be seen.

(100) Approaching from any direction in thick weather, great caution is essential. The currents are variable and uncertain. Velocities of 3 to 3½ knots have been observed between Blunts Reef and Swiftsure Bank, and velocities in excess of these amounts have been reported. Because of the possibility of a strong onshore set, especially in southwest weather, vessels should not shoal the depths to less than 20 fathoms unless sure of the position.

(101) The bar channel is subject to change. Deep-draft vessels should not enter without knowledge of conditions at the time of entering. The deepest water is not always on the range. Information concerning conditions on the bar can be obtained from the Grays Harbor Pilots Association or from the Coast Guard on VHF-FM channel 16. The bar channel and harbor should not be attempted in thick weather.

(102) Pilotage, Grays Harbor
(103) Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign vessels, and U.S. vessels under enrollment and registered in foreign trade.

(104) Grays Harbor Bar Pilots serve Grays Harbor, Chehalis River, and Willapa Bay, and maintains an office at Aberdeen, WA, and a station at Westhaven Cove, Westport, WA.

(105) The office address is: Port of Grays Harbor, P.O. Box 660, 111 S. Wooding Street, Aberdeen, WA 98520; telephone 360–533–9564.

(106) The station and pilot boat monitor VHF-FM channels 12 and 16, and use 12 as working channel. The pilot boat, CHEHALIS, is 65 feet long and has an orange and green hull. The word 'PILOT' is displayed on both sides of the boat, and the standard day and night signals are used when vessels are approaching from seaward.

(107) Arrangements for pilots can be made by ships’ agents by telephone or radiotelephone. A 24-hour advance notice of arrival is requested; any change in the estimated time of arrival requires a 4-hour advance notice to the pilots via the Marine Exchange, Seattle, WA or radiotelephone.

(108) Pilots board vessels near Grays Harbor Approach Lighted Whistle Buoy GH (46°51'55"N., 124°14'26"W.). To assist pilots in boarding from the bow of the pilot boat, the ship is requested to maintain a speed of 6 knots. A pilot ladder should be rigged amidships on the leeward side clear of the gangway or other obstructions, and about 3 meters above the water with no manropes. In rough weather, pilots may board during daylight.

(109) Westhaven Cove on the inner side of the north tip of Point Chehalis, is protected by breakwaters marked by lights. The harbor is a large sport and commercial fishing center operated by the Port of Grays Harbor.

(110) In 2003, a depth of 19.6 feet was available in the north entrance and a depth of 14.1 feet was available in the south entrance, thence depths of 9 to 16 feet were available in the cove (except for shoaling along the southwest edge of the breakwater.) Lesser depths are near both entrance channel edges and breakwaters.

(111) Grays Harbor Coast Guard Station is on the south side of Westhaven Cove. The town of Westport a summer resort and fishing town, is about a mile south of Westhaven Cove.

(112) Westhaven Cove has about 1,000 berths, with electricity, about 20 transient berths, gasoline, diesel fuel, water, ice, a launching ramp, pump-out facilities and marine supplies. Dry winter boat storage is available in the cove. A boatyard at the south end of the harbor has a mobile lift that can handle craft to 60 tons for hull or engine repairs; the yard includes a ship chandlery. Electronic repair service is available at the harbor. The Grays Harbor pilot boat is berthed at Westhaven Cove.

(113) The Coast Guard has established Grays Harbor Regulated Navigation Area Warning Sign, a rough bar advisory sign 20 feet above the water, visible from the channel looking seaward, on the north side of Westhaven Cove, to promote safety for small-boat operators. The sign is diamond shaped, painted white with an international orange border, and with the words “Rough Bar” in black letters. The sign is equipped with two quick flashing amber lights that will be activated when hazardous conditions exist and the bar is restricted to recreational and uninspected passenger vessels. Boaters are cautioned, however, that if the light is not flashing, it is no guarantee that sea conditions are favorable.

(114) The Coast Guard displays heavy weather warning flags square RED flags with square BLACK centers, at two locations in Grays Harbor; one flag is on the Coast Guard lookout tower 70 feet above the water on the south side of Point Chehalis and the other is on the northwest side of the Coast Guard station boat house 50 feet above the water. These displays will be based on current weather warnings issued in the following National Weather Service forecast areas; Cape Flattery to Cape Shoalwater. Display of flags are required from one hour before sunrise to one hour after sunset. Weather flags are flown at select Coast Guard stations to supplement other weather notification sources. Light signals corresponding to these flags are not displayed at night. (See illustration Chapter 1.) In all cases mariners should rely upon National Weather Service broadcasts as their primary source of government provided weather information.

(115) Bay City 3.7 miles southeast from Westhaven Cove, on the east shore of South Bay formerly was a whaling station. The wharf, built originally for the old fertilizer factory, is now in ruins, and there are no marine facilities now at Bay City. The fixed highway bridge at Bay City has a clearance of 39 feet.

(116) For the rest of the 2.6-mile distance, South Bay is crooked and full of shoals to the mouth of Elk River which is used some for logging.

(117) Markham is the site of a large cranberry plant and a small seafood company. It is on the south side of the bay at the mouth of Johns River. The river, nothing more than a shallow stream, is crossed by a fixed highway bridge near the entrance and has a clearance of 33 feet. Above the bridge, the stream is navigable only for rowboats.

(118) Hoquiam and Aberdeen are twin cities about 14 miles above the harbor entrance. Hoquiam is on the river of that name, and Aberdeen is on Chehalis River. South Aberdeen is across the river, but is part of the city of Aberdeen.

(119) Cosmopolis is a small town on the south side of Chehalis River just above South Aberdeen. There is a large pulpmill here.

(120) Chehalis River enters at the east end of Grays Harbor and is marked by lights to Cosmopolis. It is navigable by small boats to Elma 24 miles above the mouth. The upper portion of the river, for a distance of about 45 miles above Elma, is used for floating logs.

(121) Montesano about 14 miles above Aberdeen, has several mills. This stretch of the river is used only by log tows and outboard motorboats. A small-boat moorage is on the north bank of the river just west of the highway bridge at South Montesano; a launching ramp is near the moorage.

(122) 
 Towage
(123) Tugs up to 2,200 hp are available at Hoquiam. Arrangements for a tug should be made in advance either through the Grays Harbor Pilots Association or ships’ agents. Tugs monitor and use as working frequency VHF-FM channel 9.

(124) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration and agricultural quarantine
(125) Quarantine is enforced in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service. (See Public Health Service, chapter 1, for details.)

(126) 
 Harbor regulations
(127) The Port of Grays Harbor Commission appoints a port manager who directs the facilities and port affairs of the harbor district, which is coextensive with Grays Harbor County. The Port of Grays Harbor general offices are at 111 South Wooding Street, about 500 yards from the inshore end of Terminal Pier 1.

(128) 
 Wharves
(129) The Port of Grays Harbor operates four marine terminals. In addition to the port-operated facilities listed in the table, there are several private deep-draft piers and wharves in the Hoquiam, Aberdeen and Cosmopolis area. Only the major deep-draft facilities are listed. The alongside depths given in the table are reported. For information on the latest depths contact the port authorities or the private operators.


(131) 
 Supplies
(132) Bunker fuel, diesel oil, lubricants, water, and some marine supplies are available for large vessels at Grays Harbor. Complete service and repair facilities for small craft are available at Westhaven Cove, Aberdeen, and Hoquiam.

(133) 
 Repairs
(134) There are no facilities for major repairs to large oceangoing vessels in Grays Harbor; the nearest such facilities are in Portland, OR. There are several marine railways in Grays Harbor, the largest of which is at a shipyard on the west bank of the Hoquiam River 1 mile above its mouth. This railway can handle vessels to 400 tons, 80 feet long or 34 feet wide for hull repairs. Machine shops and foundries are nearby and can make some engine repairs. Electronic repair service is available.

(135) 
 Communications
(136) Grays Harbor is served by two Class I railroads. Two U.S. highways serve Aberdeen and Hoquiam. Bowerman Airport, owned and operated by the Port of Grays Harbor, is on an extensive filled area just west of Hoquiam; there are flights to Seattle, Portland, Astoria and points beyond.

(137) North Bay immediately east of Point Brown, is a shallow bight about 6 miles long. It is filled with shoals and flats that bare at low water. There is some oyster culture in the bay, which is used considerably by small oyster boats. The entrance to the bay is marked by buoys.

(138) Hoquiam River empties into Grays Harbor about 2 miles west of the mouth of Chehalis River. It is practically a tidal slough 11 miles long. In 1980, the midchannel controlling depth was 6 feet from the mouth of Hoquiam River to the junction with the East Fork of the Hoquiam River, a distance of about 2.5 miles. An obstruction (cement dock debris) is between the Simpson Avenue and Riverside Avenue Bridges on the west side of the river in position 46°58'41"N., 123°52'57"W. The obstruction is marked by a buoy. Traffic on the river consists primarily of tugs and fishing vessels.

(139) The Wishkah River empties into the north side of Chehalis River in the east part of Aberdeen.

(140) 
 Chart 18500

(141) From Point Brown the coast extends north for 23 miles to Point Grenville as a low, sandy beach, broken occasionally by small streams and in some places by bluffs. A few small towns and settlements, connected by roads or trails, are scattered along this stretch.

(142) Copalis Head 13 miles north of Point Brown, is a bright yellow bluff 2 miles long and 200 feet high. It is 1.5 miles north of Copalis River. Copalis Rocks two small rocks the larger 34 feet high, lie 500 yards off the head, and a rock awash is about 0.5 mile west-southwest of the head.

(143) Two small bluffs mark the mouth of Joe Creek 3.5 miles north of Copalis Head.

(144) Moclips River entrance is 6 miles north of Copalis Head. The south point at the mouth is bare and sandy; on the north bank is a bright yellowish bluff 50 feet high. Moclips near the mouth of this river, is connected by a branch of the Burlington Northern Railroad with Hoquiam on the north shore of Grays Harbor. A triangular-shaped yellowish bluff about 110 feet high on the south bank of Wreck Creek which empties about 2.5 miles north of Moclips, is prominent from offshore.

(145) Point Grenville 10 miles north of Copalis Head, is a broken rocky promontory with nearly vertical whitish cliffs over 100 feet high. Numerous rocks extend for some distance off the point. Grenville Arch dark in color, 83 feet high, is the outer and more prominent of two rocks lying west of the point; it is over 0.5 mile southwest of the inner extremity of the point. The arch lies east and west. A rock that uncovers is 400 yards northwest of Grenville Arch. The west rock, off the west end of the point, is 200 yards off the cliff and 92 feet high. There are several rocks inside of it, but none outside. Two rocks, over 90 feet high, are 400 yards south of the south extremity of the point.

(146) An indifferent anchorage in northwest weather may be had under Point Grenville by vessels of moderate draft, but the depths compel anchoring at such a distance from the beach that little shelter is afforded. The anchorage is in 4 fathoms, sandy bottom, with the inner extremity of the point bearing 338° and Grenville Arch bearing 239°. This anchorage is not recommended for ordinary use.

(147) North of Point Grenville is a series of cliffs; the upper part appears light gray, the lower part dark, separated by a well-defined line of demarcation. This formation disappears near the south end of the cliffs where they are broken up and present a stratified appearance. The strata slope downward to the north of the cliffs is a shingle beach followed by irregular bluffs and cliffs terminating near Taholah in white cliffs of uniform height, which from offshore do not present the stratified appearance noticeable to the south.

(148) Quinault River breaks through the cliffs about a mile southeast of Cape Elizabeth. Taholah is an Indian village on the banks of the river. The shoreline in this section is low. The river is navigable only by skiffs and outboard motorboats. Some gasoline and supplies are available. A piling dike has been built along the spit in front of the village. In the background is a ridge with three long, flat summits. The road serving the beach settlements, and connecting them with Hoquiam, terminates at Taholah.

(149) From Taholah to Cape Elizabeth the cliffs present an almost unbroken face seaward and in places are about 200 feet high. They appear either white or bright yellow, and from offshore present a very noticeable stratification, sloping downward to the south; an important difference from the direction of slope around Point Grenville.

(150) Sonora Reef extends south-southeast from Cape Elizabeth for over 2 miles, its south end lying 1.1 miles offshore.

(151) Cape Elizabeth projects about a mile from the general trend of the coast, and when seen from seaward appears as a bright yellow, rocky cliff reaching in places a height of 200 feet. There are no high or large rocks off the cape; numerous rocks awash extend to the south. The houses of the Quinault Indian Reservation are at the east end of the cliffs.

(152) From Cape Elizabeth for 20 miles to Destruction Island, the coast is nearly straight, with low shores and rocky cliffs heavily wooded to the edges. Numerous rocks lie offshore, but these are inshore of the usual track of vessels.

(153) Flat Rock low and black, is 1.6 miles northwest from Cape Elizabeth and 0.9 mile offshore. A covered rock which breaks in ordinary weather is 400 yards south of it. A small rock is halfway between Flat Rock and Cape Elizabeth, with a smaller one inside halfway to the beach.

(154) Pratt Cliff 3 miles north of Cape Elizabeth, is a sharp point backed by cliffs, 139 feet high. Split Rock 70 feet high, is 1 mile offshore, abreast of the north end of Pratt Cliff. It is split in two, and the division shows when seen from west to northwest. A small, low, black rock is 0.5 mile south of it, and a larger one is 0.4 mile south of Split Rock.

(155) Willoughby Rock 120 feet high, 0.4 mile northeast of Split Rock, is nearly round with an abrupt seaward face. A cluster of rocks is between Willoughby and Split Rock and a little south of them; one is black and conical, with a rock awash 200 yards southwest from it.

(156) Sealion Rock 8 feet high, small and black, is 3 miles northwest of Split Rock and 2.6 miles offshore.

(157) From Pratt Cliff to Raft River 3.5 miles, the coast consists of broken cliffs over 100 feet high bordered by rocks extending over 0.5 mile offshore. Midway between these points are three rocky heads covered with trees to the edges projecting beyond the cliffs and almost detached from them.

(158) Tunnel Island 157 feet high, is in the entrance to Raft River, and at low water is connected with the south point of the river. A vertical pillar, 108 feet high, stands 150 yards north-northwest of the rock, and a cluster of rocks is close-to under its southeast point.

(159) From Raft River to Queets River, 4.5 miles, the coast consists of cliffs about 80 feet high, broken occasionally by small streams.

(160) Queets River is the largest stream between Grays Harbor and Cape Flattery. The south point is a low, sandy spit about 0.1 mile long, projecting from an abrupt cliff, 80 feet high, and densely wooded. The north point is 1.3 miles long, low, and sandy, with some trees at the mouth of the river, and a narrow lagoon between it and the bluff.

(161) From Queets River for 10 miles to abreast Destruction Island, the coast is rather low and is broken by cliffs about 50 feet high with broad low-water beaches. Kalaloch Rocks are about 4.5 miles north of the river, close inshore.

(162) A U.S. Navy Underwater Tracking Range is west of the mouth of Queets River, about 6 to 10 miles offshore. Underwater cables, several feet above the ocean bottom and over an area about 1 mile wide, extend northeast from the upper east side of the tracking range, at about 47°32.5'N., 124°30'W., to the shore at about 47°36.3'N., 124°22.5'W. Mariners are cautioned against anchoring or dragging in these areas.

(163) Destruction Island 90 feet high, is 20 miles north-northwest of Cape Elizabeth and 3 miles offshore. It is flat-topped and covered with brush, with a few clumps of trees. The island is 0.5 mile long and 300 yards wide at its south part. From the north end rocks and ledges extend about a mile from the cliffs; these are bordered by a line of kelp on the inshore side.

(164) An indifferent anchorage, affording shelter from northwest winds, may be had off the southeast face of the island in 10 fathoms, sandy bottom, with the light bearing between 293° and 315°. Vessels must leave if the wind hauls west or south. During the fishing season many small fishing boats anchor for the night under Destruction Island; it is the only shelter from offshore winds between Grays Harbor and Cape Flattery.

(165) 
 Chart 18480

(166) For 5.5 miles from Destruction Island to Hoh Head, the coast trends in a general northwest direction. The cliffs are 50 to 100 feet high, and many rocks and ledges extend 1.2 miles offshore in some places.

(167) Abbey Islet 3.5 miles northeast of Destruction Island, is over 100 feet high and covered with trees. It is 200 yards off the cliffs. Many rocks are close south of it, the most distant of which is South Rock 46 feet high, 1 mile south, and 0.5 mile offshore.

(168) At the mouth of Hoh River 2 miles southeast of Hoh Head, is a broad sand beach; the absence of cliffs for 0.5 mile is noticeable for a considerable distance offshore. In smooth weather the river can be entered by canoes, but the channel shifts. An Indian village is on the south bank at its mouth.

(169) Hoh Head 200 feet high, is a bright yellow cliff covered with a dense forest. It projects a little over 0.5 mile from the general trend of the coast. A large cluster of rocks is off the south cliff of the head and covered rocks extend to about 1.6 miles offshore between the head and North Rock. A rock covered 2¼ fathoms lies 1.8 miles west-northwest of Hoh Head.

(170) Middle Rock North Rock and Perkins Reef are other dangers within 1.5 miles off Hoh Head. Middle Rock, 65 feet high and black with vertical sides, is 0.8 mile off the mouth of Hoh River. North Rock, a mile south of Hoh Head, is 107 feet high and grayish in color, with steep sides; in the afternoon sun this rock shows white, which makes it a very distinct landmark. Perkins Reef is a long, bold, and jagged islet, 1.1 miles west of Hoh Head. This area has numerous other rocks, covered and bare.

(171) The coast continues rugged and rocky from Hoh Head to La Push, 11 miles to the northwest. The cliffs are 100 to 120 feet high, broken here and there by small streams. Several rocky islets 25 to 120 feet high and covered ledges extend in some places as much as 2 miles offshore.

(172) Alexander Island 121 feet high, is 2 miles north-northwest of Hoh Head and 1 mile offshore. It is covered with low vegetation, and is flat-topped with steep sides. The island is prominent in hazy or smoky weather. A small clump of trees in its center makes it easily distinguishable from the other rocks and islands in the area. A covered rock, 1.8 miles west-northwest of Alexander Island, is the outermost known danger in this vicinity.

(173) Toleak Point 4.7 miles northwest of Hoh Head, is a narrow point terminating in a small knob with an abrupt seaward face. A high wooded islet lies 400 yards west of the point, to which it is connected by an extensive bare reef. Rounded Islet a grassy rock 130 feet high with rounded top and steep sides, is 0.3 mile seaward of Toleak Point. A low black rock is 0.7 mile south of the islet.

(174) Giants Graveyard 1.5 miles north of Toleak Point, consists of very irregular rocks; the largest are up to 210 feet high. The farthest offlying rock is about 0.8 mile from shore.

(175) Teahwhit Head 8 miles northwest of Hoh Head and 2.4 miles south-southeast of La Push, is a jagged double point 100 feet high and heavily wooded. Strawberry Bay on the southeast side of the head, is a small bight in which fishing boats find shelter from northwest winds. There are numerous rocks in and around the bight.

(176) Quillayute Needle 103-foot high pinnacle, 1.3 miles west-northwest of Teahwhit Head, is the outermost of many rocks, visible or covered, that are within a mile of the shore. Some are as high as 100 to 195 feet, and many are awash or covered by a fathom or less. The foul area continues to within 1 mile south of James Island, at the entrance to La Push.

(177) James Island 15 miles north-northwest of Destruction Island on the north side of Quillayute River mouth, is 183 feet high, bold and wooded, and joined to the beach at low water. Numerous smaller wooded islands, immediately north, are prominent. An indifferent anchorage affording some shelter from northwest winds may be had close southeast of James Island, in 5 to 6 fathoms, sandy bottom, about 600 yards from the beach. Sea swell makes this anchorage unsafe.

(178) James Island Light (47°54'17"N., 124°38'51"W.), 150 feet above the water, is shown from a white house on the south part of the Island.

(179) La Push an Indian village on the east bank and about 0.4 mile above the entrance of Quillayute River is an important sport fishing center.

(180) The river channel is protected by a jetty on the southeast side and a dike on the northwest side; a lighted whistle buoy is about 1.8 miles southwest from the outer end of the jetty. About 250 feet of the outer end of the jetty is awash at high water.

(181) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(182) The lines established for the Quillayute River are described in 33 CFR 80.1380 chapter 2.

(183) The river channel leads from the sea to a small-craft basin at La Push. The entrance channel is marked by a directional light. The channel to the basin is marked by a light and seasonal buoys. Buoys are not charted because they are frequently shifted in position; local knowledge is advised. The north and south sides of the entrance to the basin are marked by lights.

(184) The channel, which passes close to the southeast shore of James Island, is sometimes dangerous, especially in heavy south weather. Weather conditions which make the entrance hazardous normally occur only in the winters, usually in December and January. When there are breakers of any size making across the entrance, it should not be attempted except at better than half tide and with a well-powered boat. Mariners unfamiliar with the area may contact Quillayute River Coast Guard Station on Channel 16 VHF-FM or via telephone at 360–374–6469 for assistance. A tank, east of the entrance, is prominent.

(185) In late summer and fall mariners are advised to use caution when transiting the channel because fish nets may be present.

(186) Weather, Quillayute and Tatoosh Island
(187) Maritime air from over the Pacific has an influence on the climate throughout the year. In the late fall and winter, the low-pressure center in the Gulf of Alaska intensifies and is of major importance in controlling weather systems entering the Pacific Northwest. At this season of the year, storm systems crossing the Pacific follow a more south path striking the coast at frequent intervals. The prevailing flow of air is from the southwest and west. Air reaching this area is moist and near the temperature of the ocean water along the coast which ranges from 45°F (7.5°C) in February to 57°F (13.9°C) in August. The wet season begins in late September to October. From October through January, rain may be expected on about 22 days per month; from February through March, on 21 days; from April to June, on 20 days; and from July to September, on 15 days. Precipitation falls an average of 239 days each year.

(188) As the weather systems move inland, rainfall is usually of moderate intensity and continuous, rather than heavy downpours for brief periods. Gale force winds are not unusual. Most of the winter precipitation over the coastal plains falls as rain; however, snow can be expected each year. Snow is seldom deeper than 10 inches (254 mm) or remains on the ground longer than 2 weeks. The average annual snowfall is only 13 inches (330 mm) but snow has fallen during every month except June, July, and August. Annual precipitation increases from about 90 inches (2286 mm) near the coast, to more than 120 inches (3048 mm) over the coastal plains, to 200 inches or more (5080 mm) on the wettest slopes of the Olympic Mountains. The average annual precipitation at Quillayute airport is nearly 102 inches (2591 mm). December is the wettest month averaging nearly 15 inches (381 mm) and July is the driest with an average of only 2.37 inches (61 mm).

(189) During the rainy season, temperatures show little diurnal or day to day change. Maximums are in the forties (5.0° to 9.4°C) or minimums in the mid-thirties (0.6° to 2.8°C). A few brief outbreaks of cold air from the interior of Canada can be expected each winter. Clear, dry, cold weather generally prevails during periods of east winds. Maximum temperatures range from 25°F (-3.9°C) to 35°F (1.7°C) and minimums from 10° to 25°F (-12.2° to -3.9°C). The coolest temperature on record is 5°F (-15°C) recorded November 1985. Every month except June, July, and August has seen below freezing (0°C) temperatures.

(190) In the late spring and summer, a clockwise circulation of air around the large high-pressure center over the North Pacific brings a prevailing northwest and west flow of cool, comparatively dry, stable air into the northwest Olympic Peninsula. The dry season begins in May with the driest period between mid-July and mid-August. The total rainfall for July is less than 0.5 of an inch (13 mm) in 1 summer out of 10; also, it exceeds 5.0 inches (127 mm) in 1 summer out of 10. During the warmest months, afternoon temperatures are in the upper sixties and lower seventies (20.0° to 22.2°C), reaching the upper seventies and the lower eighties (25.6° to 27.8°C) on a few days. Occasionally, hot, dry air from the east of the Cascade Mountains reaches this area and maximum temperatures are in the mid- or upper-nineties (34° to 38°C) for 1 to 3 days. Minimum temperatures are in the upper forties and the lower fifties (8.9° to 11.1°C). The lowest relative humidity and greatest danger of forest fires occur with east winds. The warmest temperature on record is 99°F (37°C) recorded in August 1981. Each month, May through September, has recorded temperatures in excess of 90°F (32.2°C).

(191) In summer and early fall, fog or low clouds form over the ocean and frequently move inland at night, but generally disappear by midday. In winter, under the influence of a surface high-pressure system, centered off the coast, fog, low clouds, and drizzle occur daily as long as this type of pressure pattern continues. An average of 236 days each year has fog. It is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year but the months of October through January have a slightly greater occurrence. The average frost-free season is from the last of April until mid-October.

(192) See Appendix B for Quillayute climatological table.

(193) In the vicinity of Tatoosh Island (see Tatoosh Island further on, this chapter), gales occur frequently with December and January being the favored months. Rainfall is moderate averaging nearly 80 inches (2032 mm) each year. December is the rainiest month followed closely by January and February. July is the driest. An average of 251 days each year record measurable precipitation. Snowfall is light due to the extreme maritime influence and averages only 13.5 inches (343 mm) each year. It is most likely in January. The daily range in temperature is narrow, seldom exceeding ten degrees (-12.2°C). The average temperature on Tatoosh Island is 49°F (9°C). The average maximum is 53°F (11.7°) while the average minimum is 45°F (7.2°C). January is the coolest month and August the warmest. Extremes on Tatoosh Island include an extreme maximum temperature of 82°F (27.8°C) recorded in June 1955 and an extreme minimum of 14°F (-10°C) recorded in January 1950 and December 1964.

(194) The Coast Guard has established Quillayute River Regulated Navigation Area Warning Sign, a rough bar advisory sign 34 feet above the water, visible from the channel looking seaward, on the northwest corner of the old Coast Guard boathouse, to promote safety for small-boat operators. The sign is diamond shaped, painted white with an international orange border, and with the words “Rough Bar” in black letters. The sign is equipped with two quick flashing amber lights that will be activated when hazardous conditions exist and the bar is restricted to recreational and uninspected passenger vessels. Boaters are cautioned, however, that if the lights are not flashing, it is no guarantee that sea conditions are favorable.

(195) About 96 berths, electricity, gasoline, diesel fuel, water, ice, a launching ramp and some marine supplies are available at the basin at La Push. A good highway connects La Push with U. S. Highway 101 north of Forks.

(196) From James Island north-northwest for 16.4 miles to Cape Alava, the rugged coast continues, with rocks and foul ground extending as much as 2 miles offshore; the land side consists of steep wooded bluffs and narrow beaches. The cliffs, however, are not continuous. The once densely timbered country ascends gradually east to the snow-capped mountains of the Olympic Range, which can be seen for many miles in clear weather. In 1974, areas of heavy logging activity were in evidence inland for many miles from this coastal area.

(197) Cake Rock 116 feet high, is 2 miles northwest of James Island and 1.5 miles offshore. This rock, about 200 yards long, has steep sides and its flat top is surmounted by a 20-foot mound. There are several other visible rocks between Cake Rock and the shore.

(198) Cape Johnson small and not particularly prominent, projects less than 0.5 mile from the coastline, terminating in a vertical cliff 100 feet high.

(199) Sea Lion Rock 78 feet high, 2.6 miles northwest of Cape Johnson, is large, brown, covered with guano, and irregular in outline. A low black rock is 200 yards east of Sea Lion Rock. Carroll Island 225 feet high, is 0.8 mile north of Sea Lion Rock. It has vertical whitish sides and a grassy top. A pillar rock, 134 feet high, lies 200 yards west, and a low black rock is 200 yards off the southeast side. Carroll Island and the pillar rock are quite prominent, especially in the sunlight.

(200) Jagged Island is the larger of two high bare rocks, inside of Sea Lion Rock and Carroll Island, about 0.8 mile offshore. It is 320 feet high with steep sides. The smaller rock is 183 feet high. They are 200 yards apart, and between them are two pinnacle rocks close together. Many other rocks are shoreward of the island.

(201) Hand Rock 33 feet high, is 1.5 miles north of Carroll Island and 1.5 miles offshore. So named from its shape, the rock is black with a white cap of guano on top. A larger rock lies 0.5 mile toward shore and is sometimes mistaken for Hand Rock.

(202) White Rock 161 feet high, 1.7 miles south of Cape Alava and about 0.8 mile offshore, has nearly vertical sides and a rounded top; it is whitish, and in the sunlight is visible for a long distance. A group of large, low, black rocks lie 0.8 mile south-southeast of White Rock and 0.8 mile offshore.

(203) 
 Charts 18485, 18460

(204) Cape Alava the westernmost point of the State of Washington, is 13 miles south of Cape Flattery. The seaward face is about 0.6 mile in extent. Tskawahyah Island a steep rocky island, 142 feet high and with trees on top, is off its northwest extremity. The shore is bordered by numerous rocks and covered ledges.

(205) Flattery Rocks and Umatilla Reef are rocks and islets extending west from Cape Alava for 2.3 miles. Ozette Island 236 feet high, is 0.8 mile southwest of the cape. The island, 0.5 mile long, is flat-topped with steep sides. About 0.3 mile off the south and southeast sides are low, black rocks. Bodelteh Islands 1.2 miles west-northwest of the north end of Cape Alava, have high bold seaward faces. The outer one is 198 feet high.

(206) In season, a few fishermen find shelter in an anchorage off the southeast end of Ozette Island. The area is small and requires local knowledge to enter. It affords fair protection from the prevailing northwest wind.

(207) Umatilla Reef 2.3 miles northwest of Cape Alava, the greatest danger to navigation off this section of the coast, is 0.7 mile west of the outer Bodelteh Island. It extends for 200 yards in a west direction and is about 75 yards wide. The reef consists of small, low, black rocks and some breakers. A rock covered 4½ fathoms is north of the reef at 48°11'44"N., 124°46'57"W., and a rock covered 2½ fathoms is south of the reef at 48°10'18"N., 124°47'02"W. There is a rock covered ½ fathom, 0.3 mile east of Umatilla Reef, which endangers passage inside, sometimes used by small boats. Umatilla Reef is difficult to make out, especially in thick weather.

(208) Between Cape Alava and Cape Flattery, the coast curves slightly in a series of bights, but continues as rugged as before. There are alternate stretches of wooded bluffs and high rocky cliffs. The country immediately back of the beach is not high, but it is densely wooded.

(209) Point of Arches 5 miles north-northeast of Cape Alava, is the north point of the cliffs that extend some 1.5 miles south. Numerous rocks and ledges are offshore as far as about a mile.

(210) Father and Son two rocks connected by a low reef, lie 0.6 mile offshore abreast the south end of the cliffs. The outer rock is 167 feet high and the inner one is 65 feet high. Several exposed rocks are between the outer rock and Spike Rock.

(211) Spike Rock 35 feet high, sharp and bare, is 0.8 mile northwest of the Point of Arches. It is the outermost of a chain of rocks, the largest of which is 185 feet high; there are three arches in these rocks. A rock that uncovers 5 feet is 0.3 mile west-southwest of Spike Rock.

(212) Portage Head 2.5 miles north of Point of Arches, has a mile-long seaward face of bold irregular cliffs over 410 feet high. Anderson Point at the north end of the cliffs, has a height of about 270 feet. A reef extends from the point toward Cape Flattery for 1.5 miles showing several low, black rocks awash and one small rock 45 feet high. A rock covered 5 feet is 1.3 miles northwest of Portage Head.

(213) Makah Bay is a shallow bight included between Portage Head and Waatch Point. It affords indifferent shelter in north and east weather and a smooth sea, but is little used. The shores are low and sandy. Waatch River enters in the north part of the bight immediately east of Waatch Point. It is a tidal slough and the valley through which it runs extends about 2 miles to Neah Bay on the Strait of Juan de Fuca. This low depression is one of the features for recognizing Cape Flattery.

(214) Waatch Point 3 miles southeast of Cape Flattery, is the southeast extremity of the cliffs extending to the cape. This stretch is bordered by numerous rocks and ledges.

(215) Fuca Pillar 0.2 mile south of the west point of Cape Flattery, is a rocky column 157 feet high and 60 feet in diameter, leaning slightly northwest. It is 150 yards off the face of the cliff and is more prominent from north than from south.

(216) Cape Flattery a bold, rocky head with cliffs 120 feet high, rises to nearly 1,500 feet about 2 miles back from the beach. From south it looks like an island because of the low land in the valley of Waatch River. Numerous rocks and reefs border the cliffs east and south of the cape. Tide rips are particularly heavy off Cape Flattery.

(217) A large radar dome, highest and most prominent structure in the area, is on Bahokus Peak the part of Cape Flattery about 2 miles back from the beach that rises to nearly 1,500 feet. This inflated plastic dome, about 50 feet in diameter, is on top of a tower, and was reported to be a very good landmark over low dense fog for vessels coming from the south.

(218) Tatoosh Island 0.4 mile northwest of Cape Flattery, is about 0.2 mile in diameter, 108 feet high, flat-topped, and bare. It is the largest of the group of rocks and reefs making out about 0.9 mile northwest from the cape. The passage between Tatoosh Island and the cape is dangerous and constricted by two rocks awash near its center. Although sometimes used by local small craft, it cannot be recommended. The currents are strong and treacherous. Breakers may be in the area, especially during maximum currents.

(219) (See Appendix B for Tatoosh Island climatological table.)

(220) Cape Flattery Light (48°23'31"N., 124°44'13"W.), 112 feet above the water, is shown from a 35-foot skeleton tower, adjacent to the old white conical tower lighthouse on the west end of Tatoosh Island.

(221) A rocky patch, covered 7½ fathoms, on which the sea breaks occasionally in a west swell, is 1.4 miles southwest of the light.

(222) Duncan Rock and Duntze Rock the two principal dangers north-northwest of Tatoosh Island, are respectively, 1 mile and 1.3 miles from the light. Duncan Rock is small, low, and black; Duntze Rock is covered 2¾ fathoms. A lighted whistle buoy is 500 yards northwest of Duntze Rock. Ledges and rocks constrict the passage between Duncan Rock and Tatoosh Island to less than 0.5 mile, and strong currents and tide rips make it hazardous.

(223) 
 Charts 18460, 18480

(224) Swiftsure Bank about 3.5 miles in extent, is off the mouth of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, northwest of the submarine valley making into the strait. The bank has a least depth of 18 fathoms.

(225) During the summer, large numbers of fishing vessels may be trolling or at anchor on Swiftsure Bank. During periods of low visibility, which are not uncommon in this vicinity, extreme caution must be exercised to avoid collision with fishing boats; most of these craft tend to defy radar detection.

(226) U.S. Navy operating areas are southwest of the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Mariners should exercise caution when navigating in this vicinity while exercises are in progress.

(227) 
 Carmanah Point to Amphitrite Point, Canada
(228) The coast from Carmanah Point to Cape Beale is very dangerous and, except during fine weather and offshore winds, should be given a wide berth.

(229) Carmanah Point is on the Vancouver Island shore, 13 miles north of Tatoosh Island. A light, 175 feet above the water, is shown from a white octagonal concrete tower on the point.

(230) Clo-oose an abandoned village, is 4 miles northwest of Carmanah Point in the small cove at the mouth of the Cheewhat River, east of the entrance to Nitinat Lake.

(231) A reef 0.8 mile long in a northwest direction, with a rock awash in its center, is off this cove. It is marked by a lighted whistle buoy 0.8 mile southwest of the rock.

(232) Tsusiat Lake is 8.5 miles northwest of Carmanah Light. At the seaward end of the lake is a conspicuous waterfall which is visible far off even in hazy weather, and may help fix a vessel’s position as it is the only waterfall on this part of the coast. Behind Tsusiat Lake the mountains rise to more than 2,000 feet.

(233) Pachena Point 25 miles northwest of Cape Flattery, is marked by a light.

(234) Seabird Rocks are off the entrance to Pachena Bay, 3 miles northwest of Pachena Point. The largest is about 48 feet high, bare, and of small extent; it is marked by a light. There is no safe passage between Seabird Rocks and the shores northeast; the rocks should not be approached closer than 1.5 miles.

(235) Cape Beale is a bold rocky point, 120 feet high. A reef with rocks above and below water extends about 0.8 mile southwest from it. Cape Beale Light (48°47'12"N., 125°12'48"W.), 167 feet above the water, is shown from a red skeleton tower with white slatwork daymark on 3 sides, near the west extremity of the cape.

(236) Barkley Sound an extensive arm of the sea 35 miles northwest of Cape Flattery, lies between Cape Beale and Amphitrite Point. It is 15 miles wide at its entrance, and though encumbered by numerous islands and rocks, it maintains a breadth of 13 miles for 8 miles inland, above which it separates into several narrow inlets. The shores are low, except in the north part and among the inlets, where they become high, rugged and mountainous.

(237) In the west part of the sound are innumerable rocks and islands with navigable channels between them. Entrance should not be attempted without local knowledge or a pilot. Imperial Eagle Channel is the easiest of access.

(238) Amphitrite Point is the west entrance point of Barkley Sound. A light, 49 feet above the water, is shown from a white rectangular tower on the end of the point; a sound signal is at the light. A lighted whistle buoy is 0.6 mile south of the point.

(239) A more detailed description of Canadian waters is given in Pub. No. 154, Sailing Directions (Enroute) for British Columbia, published by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the Sailing Directions, British Columbia Coast, (South Portion) Vol. I, published by the Canadian Hydrographic Service.

(240) 
 Routes
(241) In clear weather no difficulty will be experienced in approaching the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca from any direction, as the land on both sides is high and Cape Flattery is readily distinguished, particularly from south, owing to the low land between Makah and Neah Bays. Lights are available on both sides of the strait to assist in obtaining a fix.

(242) In thick weather soundings will assist in estimating the distance from shore. Vessels should pick up the 100-fathom curve and be guided by the soundings. The relationship between the 100- and 50-fathom curve is a good indication for fixing the position; vessels should not proceed inside the 50-fathom curve until a fix has been obtained. The mountain peaks in the interior sometimes can be seen when the coast is obscured by fog.

(243) 
 Depths
(244) The depths in the approaches to the Strait of Juan de Fuca are very irregular, especially outside the 50-fathom curve. There is a deep submarine valley with depths of over 100 fathoms and a width of 2 to 4 miles, between the 100-fathom curves, which leads from about 37 miles south-southwest of Cape Flattery, rounds this cape at a distance of 2 miles, and extends about 32 miles into the strait. The 100-fathom curve on the west side of this submarine valley is very irregular, but on the east side it is more regular. Within the strait the curve is regular on both sides of the valley.

(245) 
 Currents
(246) The current on Swiftsure Bank is described in the Tidal Current Tables. Off the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca the coastal current is influenced by the flow into and out of the strait. On the flood there is a set into all the sounds on the Vancouver Island shore, and this, combined with the prevailing northwest current and light south winds, with possibly some swell from the same direction, makes the coast in the vicinity and west of Carmanah Light dangerous, especially for small vessels. Many strandings have occurred on the Vancouver Island shore.

(247) The flood current entering the Strait of Juan de Fuca sets with considerable velocity over Duncan and Duntze Rocks, but instead of running in the direction of the channel there is a continued set toward the Vancouver Island shore, which is experienced as far as Race Rocks. The flood current also has more velocity on the north shore of the strait than on the south.

(248) The ebb current is felt most along the south shore of the strait, and between New Dungeness Light and Crescent Bay there is a decided set south and west, especially during large tides. With wind and swell against the current, a short choppy sea is raised near the entrance to the strait. (For additional information on currents in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, see chapter 12.)

(249) Sailing craft approaching the strait should keep well off the mainland coast south of Cape Flattery, unless working to windward against a fine north wind, which is frequently found during the summer. In this case the coast may be approached to within 3 miles. At other times there is no inducement to hug the coast, on which a long rolling swell frequently sets, and this swell, meeting the southeast gales of winter, causes a confused sea. The cape and its offlying dangers should be given a berth of at least 3 miles, as the tidal current sometimes sets with great velocity toward Duncan and Duntze Rocks. It is equally necessary when entering or leaving the strait to avoid the coast of Vancouver Island between Port San Juan and Bonilla Point, when there is any appearance of bad weather.

(250) Sailing vessels making the strait during the winter, especially during November and December, and experiencing the east and southeast winds prevalent at that season, should endeavor to hold a position south or southwest of Cape Flattery, and should on no account open the entrance of the strait until an opportunity offers of getting well inside. It is also important to remember that, though it may be blowing strongly from the south or south-southwest outside, on rounding Cape Flattery, an east wind may be found blowing out of the strait, and a vessel would then find the Vancouver Island coast a dangerous lee shore.

(251) Coming from the west with a heavy west or northwest gale and thick weather, vessels uncertain of their positions should lie-to on soundings at not less than 30 miles from the entrance or on the edge of the bank. These gales seldom last more than 12 hours, and if they veer toward the southwest the weather will clear and vessels may bear up for the strait.

(252) 
 Fog
(253) The fog is generally heavier near the entrance, decreasing in density and frequency up the strait. Near the entrance the fog sometimes stands like a wall, and vessels entering the strait run out of it into clear bright weather, even before passing Tatoosh Island. The fog frequently extends a long distance seaward. The wind gradually works the fog into the strait, and it will follow the north shore past Port San Juan to the Sombrio River; occasionally it will reach as far as Sooke Inlet and at times to Race Rocks. As a rule, however, the fog moves farther into the strait along the south shore, at times reaching Port Townsend; frequently the north shore is clear when the south shore is enveloped in fog.

(254) During the spring, fog is frequent in the strait. With the west wind it often stops at the headland between Crescent and Freshwater Bays, the fog then extending west while it is clear to east. When fog extends past Freshwater Bay the small area about the west bight will often be clear.

(255) Weather, Strait of Juan de Fuca and vicinity
(256) In summer, the prevailing northwest winds draw into the strait, increasing toward evening and at times blowing 25 knots before midnight. This occurs, however, only when the winds are strong outside. In light winds, sailing vessels may be a week from Cape Flattery to Admiralty Inlet, and vice versa.

(257) In winter, southeast winds draw out of the strait, causing a confused cross-sea off the entrance, the heavy southwest swell meeting that coming out. Under these conditions small outboard vessels, especially sail, often make Neah or Clallam Bays and await more favorable weather. The weather off the entrance as a rule is exceptionally severe, and wrecks are of frequent occurrence. The heavy broken seas are probably due to the shoaling off the entrance, the irregularity and velocity of the currents, and the conflict between the wind drawing out of the strait and that along the outer coast.

(258) The rainfall in the vicinity of the entrance is considerable, even during the summer, although the heaviest rains occur between December and March.