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Coast Pilot 7 - Chapter 14 - Edition 49, 2017


Hawaii


(1) 
 Chart 540

(2) Hawaii a Polynesian kingdom until 1893 and then briefly a republic, requested and was granted annexation to the United States in 1898 and was given a territorial form of government in 1900. By Presidential proclamation of August 21, 1959, Hawaii officially became the 50th of the United States.

(3) The Hawai‘ian Islands an archipelago, consist of eight large islands, plus many islets, reefs and shoals, strung out from southeast to northwest for 1,400 nautical miles in the north-central Pacific Ocean. The archipelago extends from 18°55'N. to 28°25'N., and from 154°49'W. to 178°20'W., straddling the Tropic of Cancer. All the islands of the archipelago, except 2-square-mile Midway, are part of the State of Hawaii.

(4) The capital and chief population center of the State is Honolulu on the island of O‘ahu; the port is 2,091 nautical miles from San Francisco, 4,685 miles from the Panama Canal, and 2,477 miles from Anchorage, AK. Land area of the State totals 6,425 square statute miles, of which the “Big Island” of Hawaii alone accounts for nearly 63 percent. The other seven large islands are, in order of size, Maui, O‘ahu, Kaua‘i, Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Ni‘ihau, and Kaho‘olawe.

(5) The major islands are mountainous and of volcanic origin; the Island of Hawai‘i has two volcanoes that are still active. Elevations range from sea level to nearly 14,000 feet, with many peaks in excess of 2,500 feet. Although coastal plains, valley floors, and certain plateaus are relatively flat, much of the surface is quite rugged, with high ranges and deep ravines or gorges.

(6) Nearly all of the island streams may be classified as mountain torrents, although some of them can be navigated for short distances by small boats. Most of the streams are on the north and east coasts, where rainfall generally is heaviest.

(7) The 20-fathom depth curve is seldom more than 1 mile from shore and usually is not far from the coral reefs that fringe much of the island coastline. The bottom generally pitches off rapidly to great depths from a narrow coastal shelf, and the few off-lying dangers usually are indicated by breakers or by a change in color of the water. Under normal conditions the color of the water changes from a deep blue in the open ocean to a blue-green between the 10- and 15-fathom curves; bottom features become visible at 6 to 7 fathoms.

(8) Tourism is Hawaii's bedrock industry accounting for the largest portion of the state's economy with over 6 million visitors arriving annually. All branches of the military maintain a large presence in the islands, specifically on O‘ahu, due to Hawaii's strategic location. Hawaii, once dominated by sugar and pineapple production, has seen those crops diminish, and now has committed itself to diversified agriculture such as seed corn, floriculture, unprocessed sugar, macadamia nuts, coffee and cattle. Science and technology, film and television production, sports, and ocean research and development round out the state's economy.

(9) Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) along the coastal waters of the main Hawai‘ian Islands make the area very popular with commercial and recreational fishermen. For reasons unknown, fish in the north and west Pacific Ocean frequently gather in schools under floating objects. FADs may be as sophisticated as floating devices, often buoys, with electronic equipment attached for tracking or as crude as floating logs or other objects. The FADs in Hawai‘ian waters, established by the state, are yellow, 6 feet across at the base, and show a quick flashing yellow light atop a 5-foot steel pole. The buoys display 12-inch white letters. These buoys frequently break loose and/or become unlighted. Mariners are advised to use caution when in the vicinity of the FADs.

(10)


(11) 
 Emergency signal flag
(12) The State of Hawaii has adopted an emergency signal flag as one of the signals that may be used or displayed when a vessel is in need of assistance; the flag should be at least 2 feet square and international orange in color. This distress signal is authorized by the Hawaii Boating Law.

(13) 
 Harbors and ports
(14) Honolulu is by far the largest commercial deepwater facility in Hawaii. Other commercial deepwater harbors are Hilo and Kawaihae on Hawaii Island, Kahului on Maui, and Nāwiliwili and Port Allen on Kaua‘i. These ports service both overseas and interisland shipping.

(15) Hawaii has several commercial barge harbors engaged in interisland shipping. Some of the more important are at Kaumalaupau on Lāna‘i, and Kaunakakai, Haleolono, and Kalaupapa on Moloka‘i. These harbors service only light-draft vessels.

(16) 
 Marine radio communications
(17) Honolulu is the only port that maintains a commercial radio communication watch. Vessels desiring services at other Hawai‘ian ports must make arrangements in advance.

(18) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(19) The lines established for the Hawai‘ian Islands and United States Pacific Island Possessions are described in 33 CFR 80.1410 through 80.1495 chapter 2.

(20) 
 Control over movement of vessels
(21) Regulations require advance notice of vessel’s time of arrival to Captain of the Port. (See 33 CFR 160.1 through 160.201 chapter 2, for regulations.)

(22) Submerged submarine operations are conducted at various times in this area; proceed with caution. (For information on submarine emergency identification signals, see chapter 1.)

(23) 
 Anchorages
(24) Anchorages are numerous except on the north and east sides of the islands where shelter from the trade winds is a major requirement. The anchorages on the south and west sides of the islands are unsafe during kona weather.

(25) 
 Regulated Navigation Area
(26) A security zone has been established for all waters within 1,000 yards of any U.S. Navy submarine that is operating in the Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone and that is being escorted by the U.S. Coast Guard. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.13 and 165.1412 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(27) 
 Tides
(28) The periodic tides around Hawaii average only 1 to 2 feet. The tides along the north coasts usually occur about 1 to 1½ hours earlier than the tides along the south coasts. (See Tide Tables for daily predictions of times and heights of high and low waters for Honolulu.)

(29) The effect of strong winds added to normal tidal action may cause water level to fall considerably below chart datum and/or rise considerably above mean higher high water. A heavy surf, particularly from north, gives the impression of higher tides on the exposed beaches; there is usually little actual increase under such conditions. On the south side of O‘ahu, where the trades usually blow directly off the land, a shift to kona winds or to a calm has been observed to raise the tide level a few tenths of a foot.

(30) 
 Currents
(31) The variable oceanic currents in the vicinity of Hawaii are believed to depend mostly upon the velocity and direction of the wind, but there are many reports of strong northeast currents setting against the prevailing trades. There is a prevailing west oceanic drift in the vicinity of the larger islands and as far west as Necker Island.

(32) The tidal currents are generally rather weak and are influenced by winds and oceanic movements. Such currents are mainly reversing in the channels between the larger islands, but they are rotary in more open waters, particularly around the west islets, and shift direction continuously in a clockwise movement.

(33) Tsunamis (seismic sea wave)
(34) The Hawai‘ian Archipelago has been visited from time to time by tsunami, which causes enormous destruction. Loss of life and property can be lessened by intelligent response to warnings that such waves are imminent. (See chapter 1 for basic discussion.)

(35) The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administers a tsunami warning system that alerts the Hawai‘ian Islands, other Pacific islands, and most of the countries bordering the Pacific. The system has an operating center at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, ‘Ewa Beach, O‘ahu, and includes scattered seismograph stations for quick detection and location of submarine earthquakes, a network of wave-detecting and reporting stations throughout the Pacific, a high-priority communication setup, and an extensive international arrangement for broadcasting warnings of possible sea waves.

(36) Military authorities in Honolulu will issue warnings to all military bases that might be affected. Local base commanders will put into effect any precautions deemed necessary. Elsewhere warnings will be broadcast by civilian authorities. Disaster committees have been set up on all the major islands to alert the population and to assist in evacuation and rescue as needed. In Honolulu and Hilo, former air raid sirens now operated by the police department will be used. On O‘ahu, Civil Air Patrol planes equipped with sirens will fly the shoreline and sound the alarm. This service will later be extended to the other islands. On all the major islands, police cars equipped with sirens will patrol the coastal areas. Local commercial broadcasting stations will interrupt all programs to give the latest information and instructions.

(37) All warnings will also be broadcast by the National Weather Service on NOAA Weather Radio. (See Appendix A for locations and frequencies of the stations.)

(38) Should a warning occur when a radio station is closed down, it will come on the air immediately and remain on until the all clear is sounded. When an alarm is given, all persons are warned to turn on their radios to a local broadcasting station for information and instructions. If they have no radio and cannot find access to one nearby, they should seek high ground. Telephones are apt to be flooded with calls and therefore cannot be relied on during a warning.

(39) When a warning is received, persons should vacate waterfront areas and seek high ground. The safest procedure for ships will depend upon the amount of time available, and this may not always be known. A ship well out at sea would ride such waves safely, and hence, if time is available to put to sea, that would be the safest action. During the 1946 wave, the master of a ship lying offshore near Hilo felt no unusual waves, though he could see great waves breaking on the shore. Crews of fishing boats in the Hawai‘ian area also reported no unusual conditions at that time. On the other hand, the crew of a ship in the harbor may have a difficult time averting serious damage.

(40) The destructive force is usually greater on the sides of the islands facing the oncoming waves, but this directional effect is frequently lacking and the waves may reach their greatest heights on the leeward sides of the islands. The waves may also attain great heights in funnel-shaped bays and at capes or other places where a submarine ridge projects seaward toward the oncoming wave. Unusual heights may be attained at any place where two waves traveling different paths arrive at the same time to reinforce each other. There is still much to be learned about these waves, and the best policy is to avoid them in any way possible.

(41) Weather, Hawaii
(42) The climate of the Hawai‘ian Islands is unusually pleasant for a tropical area, the result principally of the marked marine influence and the persistent trade winds. Considering the latitude of the islands, there is relatively little uncomfortable heat. The discomfort that is occasionally experienced usually occurs when the trades are temporarily displaced by light variable or south winds, which are accompanied by comparatively higher humidities. The outstanding climatic features of the islands are the dominant trade-wind influences throughout all seasons, the remarkable variation in rainfall over adjacent areas, and the uniform temperature regime which varies slightly throughout the year.

(43) During the summer season the trades blow with a high degree of persistency. As a result, uncomfortable periods are usually delayed until fall, and thus follow by weeks or possibly as much as two months the period when the highest temperatures occur. Rains most frequently fall at night.

(44) Thunderstorms are infrequent and practically never severe. Hail seldom occurs. Occasionally local storms are accompanied by winds of sufficient force to do limited damage, but severe storms such as hurricanes or tornadoes are rare. So-called thick weather is almost unknown to the extent of seriously interfering with shipping, and is usually confined to mist and rain, rather than being in the form of fog. Interference to shipping or travel because of bad weather is almost unknown.

(45) The strongest influence in the pressure pattern underlying the general circulation of air over the Hawai‘ian Islands area is the persistent and semipermanent high-pressure cell known as the Pacific high. The clockwise circulation around this cell, coupled with a slight deflection of the surface winds away from the high pressure, result in the northeast trades that are the dominant winds of the area.

(46) The trade-wind influence is dominant in all seasons throughout the greater part of all the islands. In some local areas, winds deviate from the general pattern because of topography. In coastal areas where mountains to the east project high above sea level, as they do in the kona districts of the Island of Hawai‘i, the trades are cut off, resulting in prevalent southwest winds with land and sea breezes in evidence. Such effects may be rather general in some areas and extremely local in others.

(47) The Hawai‘ian Islands lie on the extremities of both the Western North Pacific typhoon area and the Eastern North Pacific hurricane area. Therefore, a tropical cyclone from either region is rare. Typhoons can form in any month, but they rarely cross 180°; when they do they are usually extratropical and well north of the islands. It is not impossible, but highly improbable, that a typhoon will move through the Hawai‘ian Islands.

(48) It is more probable that an Eastern North Pacific hurricane would hit the islands. These storms, prevalent from May through November, originate from the North American coast west between 10°N and 20°N. Most hurricanes either recurve or dissipate before reaching the Hawai‘ian Islands. August is the most favorable month for one of these storms to reach the area, although they have occurred from July through November. Since 1842 at least six storms have hit the Big Island. However, all six storms were in the dissipation stage and no major damage was reported.

(49) It is a different case however, for the western islands especially Kaua‘i. Since 1842, Kaua‘i has had a direct impact from a northeast Pacific hurricane at least four times. Perhaps the most noteworthy storms were Hurricane Dot on August 7, 1959. Dot was a minimal hurricane with only 75-knot winds. Hurricane Iniki, with maximum winds estimated at 125 knots and gusts estimated at 150 knots slammed into Kaua‘i early on September 12, 1992. Damage was extensive throughout Kaua‘i. Damage from the ocean was heaviest along the south shore of Kaua‘i and affected shoreline hotels and condominiums. Wind damage was extremely heavy throughout Kaua‘i, as many houses or buildings were flattened or lost their roofs. Iniki left 14,350 damaged or destroyed homes on the island. Electric and telephone services were lost throughout the island and only 20% of the power had been restored four weeks after the event. Crop damage was extensive, especially to fruit trees and sugar cane. The monetary value of the damage caused by Iniki on Kaua‘i was estimated at $1.8 billion. Six deaths were connected to the storm.

(50) The word “kona” is of Polynesian origin and means leeward. It refers to the south winds and accompanying weather on the normally leeward slopes of the principal Hawai‘ian Islands which, because of the wind shift, have temporarily become the windward slopes.

(51) The konas, which occur most frequently during October through April, provide the major climatic variations of the Hawai‘ian Islands. During these storms, heavy rainfall and cloudiness can be expected on the lee sides of coasts and slopes, which, under the usual wind pattern, receive less cloudiness and may have almost no rain. Near gales may occur, especially near points where the air tends to funnel into sharp mountain passes near the coasts. At such times leeward anchorages may become unsafe for smaller craft.

(52) The complicated rainfall pattern over the islands results chiefly from the effects of the rugged terrain on the persistent trade winds. Frequent and heavy showers fall almost daily on windward and upland areas, while rains of sufficient intensity and duration to cause more than temporary inconvenience are infrequent over the lower sections of leeward areas.

(53) In the districts where the trade winds are dominant, rains are decidedly heavier at night than during the day. This applies generally to the greater part of the islands. Daytime showers, usually light, often occur while the sun continues to shine.

(54) Considerably more rain falls from November through April over the islands as a whole than from May through October. It is not unusual for an entire summer month to go by without measurable rain falling at some points on the Maui isthmus; at times considerably longer dry periods may occur in that locality.

(55) Elevation is the major control factor in determining temperatures, although location, whether in a leeward or windward position, is also a noticeable factor. The highest temperatures reached during the day in leeward districts are usually higher than those attained in windward areas. The daily range is also greater over leeward districts where, because of less cloudiness, the maximum temperatures are higher and the minimum temperatures usually lower.

(56) August and September are the warmest months, and January and February are the coldest. At Honolulu there is an average monthly range between a low of 73.0°F (22.8°C) in January and February, and a high of 81.3°F (27.4°C) in August. The extreme range of temperature at Honolulu for the 46-year period of record is from a low of 52°F for January 1969, to a high of 95°F recorded in September 1994. This spread of only 43°F (24°C) between the extreme high and extreme low temperatures is small when compared with ranges at Pacific coast ports.

(57) All coastal areas are subject to the relatively high humidities associated with a marine climate. Humidities, however, vary considerably, with high percentages over and near the windward slopes to low percentages on the leeward sides of the higher elevations.

(58) At Honolulu the normally warm months of August and September are usually comfortable because of the persistency of the northeast trades which bring moderate humidities. Unpleasant weather is more likely later during the autumn or early winter when the trades may diminish and give way to south winds. During these periods known locally as “kona weather” (“kona storms” when stormy), the humidity may become oppressively high.

(59) Routes
(60) Between the islands, proceed on rhumb lines as direct as safe navigation permits.

(61) 
 Honolulu to Panama
(62) Rhumb lines through 21°14'N., 157°39'W., and 21°18'N., 157°00'W.; thence great circle to 8°40'N., 88°00'W., off shoals reported south of Guardian Bank; thence rhumb lines through 7°05'N., 81°45'W.

(63) 
 Honolulu to San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Strait of Juan de Fuca
(64) (See routes in chapter 3.)

(65) 
 Honolulu to Anchorage
(66) Rhumb lines through 21°19'N., 157°36'W., and 59°00'N., 151°20'W.

(67) 
 Radar
(68) Most mariners rely on a combination of visual and radar piloting for interisland navigation. It is reported that landfall at a distance of 20 to 30 miles is not uncommon. The generally high, rugged coastline of the islands provide good and well-defined radar returns; some navigators have reported radar contact at 40 miles.

(69) Pilotage, Hawaii
(70) Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign vessels and for U.S. vessels under register in the foreign trade; it is optional for U.S. vessels in the coastwise trade. Hawaii Pilots provide pilotage service to several ports in the islands, namely, Honolulu Harbor, Hilo Harbor, Kahului Harbor, Port Allen Harbor, Nawiliwili Harbor, and Kawaihae Harbor. Specific information is given in the description of the various ports.

(71) 
 Towage
(72) Tugs are available at the more important ports. (See description of port for further information.) Honolulu has some salvage equipment.

(73) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration, and agricultural quarantine
(74) (See chapter 3, Vessel Arrival Inspections, and Appendix A for addresses.)

(75) Quarantine is enforced in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service. (See Public Health Service, chapter 1.) There are good hospitals on Hawaii, Moloka‘i, Maui, Lāna‘i, O‘ahu, and Kaua‘i.

(76) Honolulu is a customs port of entry. (See Appendix A for lists of other ports of entry.)

(77) 
 Harbor regulations
(78) These are established by the Harbors Division, Hawaii Department of Transportation, which also assigns harbormasters to the deepwater ports and the commercial barge harbors.

(79) 
 Supplies
(80) Honolulu is the principal supply center for the State. Water is available at most of the wharves and piers at the deepwater ports. Gasoline, diesel fuel, ice and minor items of marine supplies are available at the smaller ports.

(81) 
 Repairs
(82) Honolulu has a floating drydock that can handle medium-size vessels. The other ports have only minor facilities for small vessels.

(83) 
 Communications
(84) Honolulu is a major port of call for transpacific passenger and cargo vessels; air service, passenger and freight, includes scheduled flights to the other islands, to the mainland, and to west and southwest Pacific areas. The other deepwater ports have regular interisland barge service and are irregular ports of call for transpacific vessels; interisland passenger travel is almost entirely by air.

(85) 
 Standard Time
(86) The State of Hawaii uses Hawaii-Aleutian standard time, which is 10 hours slow of Greenwich mean time. Example: When it is 1200 at Greenwich, it is 0200 in Honolulu. Midway Islands use Samoa standard time, which is 11 hours slow of Greenwich mean time. Example: When it is 1200 at Greenwich, it is 0100 at Midway Islands.

(87) 
 Daylight Saving Time
(88) Daylight saving time is not observed in the State of Hawaii.

(89) 
 Chart 19320

(90) Hawaii at the southeast end of the archipelago, is the “Big Island”; its area of 4,021 square statute miles is twice that of all the other islands in Hawaii State combined. The island is roughly triangular in shape, 82 nautical miles north to south and 72 miles east to west.

(91) Hawaii is also the Volcano Island; it has five volcanoes, two of which–Mauna Loa and Kīlauea–are still active. Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa the two volcanoes that dominate the island, rise to heights of nearly 14,000 feet and are the highest in the State; from their summits, the land descends gradually with occasional cinder cones and lesser peaks dotting the slopes. Lava flows are numerous, and some reach the coast. Kīlauea 20 miles east of Mauna Loa and 9 miles from the southeast coast, appears to be a crater in the side of its towering neighbor, but is really a separate peak with an elevation of more than 4,000 feet.

(92) Hualālaia volcano dormant since 1801, rises to an elevation of 8,269 feet near the middle of the west coast. A peak of the Kohala Mountains rises to an elevation of 5,505 feet from the Kohala Peninsula at the northwest end of the island.

(93) A highway encircles the island, and another leads from Hilo to Waimea by way of the pass between Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa.

(94) 
 Anchorages
(95) There is little shelter from the northeast trades along the northeast and southeast sides of the island. Good anchorage is available along much of the west coast, but there are some areas so steep-to that anchorage is not practicable.

(96) 
 Currents
(97) The currents generally follow the northeast trade wind, but occasionally set against it. One current follows the coast northwest from Cape Kumukahi, the east extremity of Hawaii, and around Upolu Point, the north extremity. Another current follows the coast southwest from Cape Kumukahi around Kalae, the south extremity, and thence north to Upolu Point; the latter flow is accompanied by an inshore counter current which sets southeast from Hanamalo Point around Kalae and thence northeast to Keauhou Point. An inshore current sets north from Hanamalo Point and sometimes attains considerable velocity. There are reports of strong northeast currents off Makolea Point and strong north currents at Māhukona; another report states that currents offshore from Makolea Point set east toward the coast. Currents are weak at Kawaihae; southwest currents with velocities of 0.5 knot have been observed in Honokaope and Kīholo Bays.

(98) Weather, The Big Island
(99) The northeast trade winds seem to divide at Cape Kumukahi, one part following the coast northwestward and losing its force when it rounds Upolu Point, the other part following the coast Southwestward and around Kalae. On the west coast of Hawaii, except at Māhukona, the sea breeze sets in about 0900 and continues until displaced by the land breeze that usually springs up after sundown. Vessels bound east to ports on the windward side of the island should pass Upolu Point close-to and avoid the heavier offshore winds.

(100) During the trades, the northeast coast frequently is clouded over in early morning, but there is clear weather 1 or 2 miles (2 to 4 km) offshore; when the breeze picks up about 0900 the clouds are driven inland. Rainfall varies greatly with locality; the greatest amount is along the windward side, the kona highlands get a moderate amount, and a little reaches the Kau District and the west coast.

(101) The northeast coast of Hawaii Island has a length of about 77 miles between Upolu Point, the north extremity, and Cape Kumukahi, the east extremity. This coast is mostly bold, and all dangers can be avoided by giving it a berth of 2 miles. Hilo Bay is the only sheltered harbor or anchorage.

(102) 
 Chart 19327

(103) The numerous bluffs in the vicinity of Upolu Point appear quite similar from seaward. Several structures are prominent on the point: two buildings on the south side of Upolu Point Airport, an aerobeacon atop a wooden tripod, and three blue silos with white tops south of the airport. A wind farm with several large wind turbines, adjacent to the silos and centered at 20°15'31"N., 155°51'16"W., is very prominet on Upolu Point. The country back of the point is cattle range; the camps and villages are generally situated high on the bluffs and among the occasional clumps of trees.

(104) Kauhola Point Light (20°14'47"N., 155°46'17"W.), 108 feet above the water, is shown from an 86-foot white pole on the low point 5 miles east of Upolu Point. A dangerous reef, usually marked by breakers, extends 0.3 mile from Kauhola Point; passing vessels should give the point a berth of 2 miles.

(105) Local vessels sometimes anchor in Keawaeli Bay on the west side of Kauhola Point, in depths of about 4 fathoms with the light 0.3 mile distant on bearing 090°. Protection is afforded vessels forced to leave anchorage on the west coast during kona storms. Hala‘ula the principal village in the vicinity, is 1 mile inland from the light.

(106) Akoakoa Pointis 2.8 miles southeast of Kauhola Point. The country southeast of Akoakoa Point rises gradually to the Kohala Mountains which are heavily wooded to their summits.

(107) 
 Chart 19320

(108) The 10-mile stretch of coast between Akoakoa Point and Waipio Valley is backed by cliffs ranging up to 1,300 feet in height, and deep gorges that extend well inland. Waterfalls are numerous. The cliff faces have a general brownish appearance, but in some places they are covered with vegetation from top to bottom.

(109) Honokāne Iki Stream empties into a narrow bay about 9.2 miles southeast of Upolu Point. The bay affords fair protection and possible landing places for small boats. A rock awash, 0.5 mile offshore from the stream, is surrounded by depths of 12 to 14 fathoms. A rock, covered 2 fathoms, is about 0.75 mile east of the bay in about 20°12'01"N., 155°42'20"W.

(110) Three rocky islets, the largest 230 feet high, are about 300 yards offshore 0.8 mile southeast of Honokāne Iki Stream. Between Akoakoa Point and the islets, the bottom is fairly regular and slopes gradually to the 20-fathom depth curve, which is about 0.7 mile offshore.

(111) Waimanu Valley 14.5 miles southeast of Upolu Point, splits the highest cliffs in the vicinity and is the second largest ravine along this coast. Waimanu Bay may be used as an anchorage in favorable weather; there are depths of 7 fathoms 0.2 mile offshore from the ravine.

(112) Waipio Valley the largest ravine along this coast, is 17.5 miles southeast of Upolu Point. The valley is a remarkable cleft in the bluffs and is easily recognized. Taro is grown in the vicinity of Waipi‘o a small village near the mouth of the valley. In favorable weather, anchorage may be found in depths of 7 to 9 fathoms 0.3 mile off the valley or under the bluffs to the east.

(113) From Waipio Valley east the cliffs become lower, and at Kukuihaele the coast is a comparatively low bluff 30 to 300 feet high. The slopes between Waipio Valley and Hilo are covered in patches of feral sugarcane mixed with thick vegetation to an elevation of about 2,000 feet; continuing upward toward Mauna Kea, the slopes are wooded to about 2,600 feet and then present a barren appearance. Mauna Kea is frequently snowcapped during the winter.

(114) 
 Chart 19322

(115) Kukuihaele Point Light (20°07'41"N., 155°33'22"W.), 154 feet above the water, is shown from a 27-foot white concrete tower at Kukuihaele 19 miles southeast of Upolu Point.

(116) Honoka‘a is 24 miles southeast of Upolu Point. A power plant (Hamakua Energy) with two storage tanks, two stacks, and a cooling tower is prominent just north of Honoka‘a in about 20°05'38"N., 155°28'13"W. A reef that usually breaks extends 170 yards north from the landing and is marked by several bare rocks. No shelter is available during normal weather, as the landing is open to the north and east.

(117) 
 Chart 19326

(118) Pā‘auhau 26 miles southeast of Upolu Point, is marked by the masonry of the abandoned inclined railway that leads to the top of the bluff. The shore at the foot of the bluff consists of rocks and ledges over which the sea breaks constantly. The small concrete landing at the foot of the masonry incline offers little protection from the northeast trades.

(119) 
 Chart 19320

(120) Pa‘auilo is 31 miles southeast of Upolu Point and a mile inland.

(121) ‘Ō‘ōkala about 36 miles southeast of Upolu Point, is on the edge of a bluff on the south side of a deep gulch. A lighted microwave tower is prominent.

(122) Ka‘awali‘i Stream is about 1.5 miles southeast of ‘Ō‘ōkala. In this locality the country back of the coast changes slightly in appearance; hummocky fields are noticeable.

(123) Laupāhoehoe Point 39 miles southeast of Upolu Point, is low and flat and makes out about 0.3 mile from a deep gulch. Laupāhoehoe Point Light (19°59'37"N., 155°14'26"W.), 39 feet above the water, is shown from a pole with a black and white diamond-shaped daymark on the point. The outer end of the point is a mass of black lava rock which is broken into detached ledges that extend 250 yards seaward from the light. The seas usually break with considerable force over the ledges.

(124) Laupāhoehoe is at the inner end of the point. A boat ramp is in a 30-foot opening in the rock on the southeast side of the point. A breakwater, marked by a light, offers some protection for small boats in the area.

(125) Maulua Bay 1.7 miles southeast of Pāpa‘aloa, is a 0.3-mile indentation in the coast at the mouth of a gulch which is spanned by a high bridge. In favorable weather, small boats can be beached on the shingle at the head of the bay. Only slight protection is afforded from the northeast trades. Nīnole is 1.5 miles southeast of the bay.

(126) Honohina 6.5 miles souheast of Laupāhoehoe Point, is a settlement on the plain between two gulches. No stacks or prominent buildings are to be seen from seaward. The land has lost its hummocky appearance, and the cane-covered fields are more uniform, although still broken by gulches. Between Honohina and Hilo the bluffs gradually decrease in height and finally disappear.

(127) Hakalau Bay 8.5 miles southeat of Laupāhoehoe Point, lies at the mouth of Hakalau Gulch. Prominent from offshore are a high trestle spanning the gulch and several buildings on the highland just south of the gulch and quite close to the edge of the bluff. At night, a row of prominent lights extends from the highland down to the gulch.

(128) Wailea is a small settlement a mile south of Hakalau Bay and just north of Kolekole Gulch.

(129) Honomū is at the mouth of a gulch 10.5 miles southeast of Laupāhoehoe Point.

(130) Pepeekeo Point 52 miles southeast of Upolu Point and 25 miles northwest of Cape Kumukahi, is the most prominent point in the vicinity. Pepeekeo Point Light (19°50'50"N., 155°04'58"W.) 147 feet above the water, is shown from a 72-foot steel pole with a black and white diamond-shaped dayboard on the north side of the entrance to Hilo Bay. During the day, the light tower is obscured by trees. Pāpa‘ikou 4 miles south of Pepeekeo Point, is on the west side of Hilo Bay.

(131) 
 Chart 19324

(132) Hilo Bay has an entrance width of 8 miles between Pepeekeo Point on the north and Leleiwi Point on the southeast; the head of the bay is 4 miles inland. Hilo on the southwest side of the bay, is second in importance of the commercial deepwater harbors in the State of Hawaii.

(133) The west shore of Hilo Bay is bluff, but the south and southeast shores are low. The outer bay is exposed to the northeast trades, but the inner harbor is protected by a breakwater on Blonde Reef. There is frequently a heavy swell which is deflected east by the west shore and causes considerable surge at the wharves behind the breakwater. The west end of the breakwater is marked by a light.

(134) 
 Prominent features
(135) Paukaa Point Light (19°45'44"N., 155°05'23"W.) 145 feet above the water, is shown from a white pyramidal concrete tower about 2 miles north of Hilo. A lighted red and white water tank is on the southeast side of Kūhiō Bay.

(136) The marine terminal is in Kūhiō Bay behind the inner end of the breakwater. South of the terminal is a large commercial airport; the aero light at the airport can be seen many miles at sea.

(137) A flashing amber warning light, privately maintained and shown 2 feet above the southwest corner of the roof of the shed on Pier 2, is activated when there is a gas leak or the likelihood thereof. Anyone observing the light flashing should remain well clear and upwind, and sources of ignition should be secured.

(138) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(139) The lines established for Hilo Harbor are described in 33 CFR 80.1480 chapter 2.

(140) 
 Channels
(141) From deep water on the north, the channel to the inner harbor leads between the breakwater and the west shore, then turns sharply east and follows the south edge of Blonde Reef to the wharves in Kūhiō Bay. A Federal project provides for an entrance channel 35 feet deep and a harbor basin of same depth in Kūhiō Bay. Channel and basin are maintained at or near the project depth. The entrance and channel to the basin are marked by a directional light on Coconut Point lighted and unlighted buoys, and a 097.2° lighted range leading into Kūhiō Bay. The range may be obscured by vessels moored at Pier 1.

(142) 
 Anchorages
(143) Anchorages may be obtained anywhere under the lee of the breakwater where depths are suitable. Good anchorage is available west of Kaula‘ināiwi Island in depths of 25 to 35 feet over good holding ground. Well protected small-craft anchorages with fair holding ground may be found in south of Kūhiō Bay, and in Radio Bay east of Pier 1. The Hilo harbormaster usually assigns deep-draft anchorages.

(144) Special anchorages are on the south side of Hilo Bay and in the east part of Kūhiō Bay at the south end of the breakwater. (See 33 CFR 110.1 and 110.128b chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(145) 
 Dangers
(146) Blonde Reef has depths of 4 to 25 feet and extends 1.5 miles in a northwest direction from the southeast side of Hilo Bay. In general, the shoaling is abrupt on all sides of the reef. A lighted buoy is off the outer end of the breakwater, which extends the length of the reef.

(147) Opposite Blonde Reef are two small islands on a reef that makes out 0.3 mile from the south shore; bare Kaula‘ināiwi Island is near the outer end of the reef and wooded Coconut Island connected to the mainland by a footbridge, is close to shore. A lighted buoy marks the outer end of the reef.

(148) A large fleet of fishing boats operates in the outer part of Hilo Bay; the movements of these boats are uncertain, and approaching vessels should maintain a sharp lookout. The approach should be made from north, favoring the west shore and avoiding the northwest part of Blonde Reef; vessels have gone aground on the north side of the breakwater.

(149) 
 Regulated navigation area
(150) A safety zone is in Hilo Harbor, adjacent to the commercial piers. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40 and 165.14-1414 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(151) 
 Currents
(152) A north-northwest current of about 1 knot has been reported in the approach to the harbor. After heavy rains, currents from Wailoa River and Wailuku River set north in the inner harbor.

(153) Weather, Hilo
(154) Hawaii lies well within the belt of northeast trade winds generated by the semipermanent Pacific high-pressure cell to the north and east. The climate of the island is greatly influenced by terrain. Its outstanding features are the marked variations in rainfall with elevation and from place to place, the persistent northeast trade winds in areas exposed to them, and the equable temperatures from day to day and season to season in localities near sea level.

(155) Over the island’s windward slopes, rainfall occurs principally in the form of showers within the ascending moist trade winds. Mean annual rainfall increases from 100 inches or more (2540 mm) along the coasts, to a maximum of over 300 inches (7620 mm) at elevations of 2,000 to 3,000 feet (610 to 915 m), and then declines to about 15 inches (381 mm) at the summits of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa. In general, leeward (south and west) areas are topographically sheltered from the trades, hence from trade-wind showers and are therefore drier; although sea breezes created by daytime heating of the land move onshore and upslope, causing afternoon and evening cloudiness and showers. Where mountain slopes are steeper, mean annual rainfall may range from 30 inches (762 mm) along the coast to 120 inches (3048 mm) at elevations of 2,500 to 3,000 feet (763 to 915 m). The driest locality on the island and in the State, with an average annual rainfall of less than 10 inches (254 mm), is the coastal strip just leeward of the south portion of the Kohala Mountains and of the saddle between the Kohalas and Mauna Kea.

(156) These marked contrasts in rainfall are reflected in soil and vegetation, with frequent abrupt transitions from lush tropical growth to near-desert conditions, such as occurs between Kīlauea’s wet windward slopes and the Ka‘ū Desert just to the south.

(157) Within the city of Hilo itself, average rainfall varies from about 130 inches (3302 mm) a year near the shore to as much as 200 inches (5080 mm) in mountain sections. The wettest part of the island, with a mean annual rainfall exceeding 300 inches (7620 mm), is about 6 miles (11 km) upslope from the city limits. Rain falls on about 280 days a year in the Hilo area. At the Hilo airport, the average precipitation is 130 inches (3302 mm) annually and has ranged from 211 inches (5360 mm) in 1990 to 68 inches (1727 mm) in 1983. The mean number of days with precipitation is 314. The wettest month is November with 15.35 inches (390 mm) and the driest month June, with a mean amount of 6.44 inches (164 mm). On 20 February 1979, 16.87 inches of rainfall fell at the Hilo airport; the wettest 24-hour period on record for the site. Snowfall has never been documented at Hilo.

(158) Hawaii’s equable temperatures are associated with its mid-ocean location and the small seasonal variation in the amount of energy received from the sun. At Hilo, the range in average temperature from February, the coldest month, to August, the warmest, is only 4.9°F (2.7°C) and the average daily range, 14.4°F (8°C). The highest temperature of record at Hilo Airport is 94°F (34.4°C) recorded in May 1966; the lowest 53°F (11.7°C) recorded in February 1962. Greater variations occur in localities with less rain and cloud cover, but temperatures in the mid-nineties (33.9° to 36.1°C) and low fifties (10.6° to 11.1°) are uncommon anywhere on the island near sea level. Every month except April and July (more cloud cover) have seen extreme maximum temperatures of 90°F (32.2°C) or greater and each month from November through May has recorded extreme minimum temperatures below 60°F (15.6°C).

(159) The trade winds prevail throughout the year (although they may be absent for days or even weeks at a time) and profoundly influence the climate. However, the island’s entire west coast is sheltered from the trades by high mountains, except that unusually strong trade winds may sweep through the relatively low (2,600-foot, (793 m)) saddle between the Kohala Mountains and Mauna Kea and reach the areas to the lee. But even places exposed to the trades may be affected by local mountain circulations. For example, the prevailing wind at Hilo Airport is not the northeast trade, but the southwest wind that drifts downslope off Mauna Loa during the night and early morning hours.

(160) Except for heavy rain, really bad weather seldom occurs. Thunderstorms average only ten per year, most likely in March, and are rarely severe. During the winter, cold fronts or the cyclonic storms of subtropical origin (the so-called kona storms) may bring blizzards to the upper slopes of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, with snow extending at times to 9,000 feet (2745 m) or below and icing nearer the summit.

(161) Storms crossing the Pacific a thousand miles to the north, or kona storms closer by, may generate seas that cause heavy swell and surf along the north, east, and southwest shores of the island.

(162) The National Weather Service office is at the Hilo Airport; barometers may be compared there or by telephone.

(163) (See Appendix B for Hilo climatological table.)

(164) Pilotage, Hilo
(165) Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign vessels and for U.S. vessels under register in the foreign trade; it is optional for U.S. vessels in the coastwise trade with a Federal licensed pilot on board.

(166) Pilots are available through the Hawaii Pilots Association. Mariners are requested to give 24 hours advance notice of arrival, gross tonnage, length and draft of vessel by telephone (808–537–4169) or by e-mail at dispatch@hawaiipilots.net. The 31-foot long pilot boat PAUKAA has a black hull with yellow superstructure and displays the words HAWAII PILOTS in large white letters on the sides of the cabin. The pilot boat displays the International Code Flag H by day and shows the standard pilot lights at night, white over red. The pilot boat monitors VHF-FM channels 12 and 16 and can be reached by HILO PILOTS. Additionally, vessels are requested to rig a pilot ladder 1 meter above the water on the leeward side. The pilot boarding area is 1.2 miles north of the harbor entrance.


(168) 
 Towage
(169) One diesel-powered tug up to 1,600 hp is based in Hilo. A second assist tug from another island may be arranged with advance notice. This may require a minimum of 12 to 24 hours transit time to get to the Port of Hilo from either Maui or O‘ahu.

(170) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration, and agricultural quarantine
(171) (See chapter 3, Vessel Arrival Inspections, and Appendix A for addresses.)

(172) Quarantine is enforced in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service. (See Public Health Service, chapter 1.)

(173) Hilo is a customs port of entry.

(174) A Coast Guard patrol boat moors in the basin east of Pier 1.

(175) 
 Harbor regulations
(176) Harbor regulations are established by the Harbors Division of the Hawaii Department of Transportation. There is a vessel draft restriction of 32½ feet in Hilo Harbor. The harbormaster enforces the regulations and assigns anchorages.

(177) 
 Wharves
(178) The State-owned and operated piers are on the east side of Kūhiō Bay. General cargo is usually handled by ships’ tackle; fork lift trucks, a 20-ton mobile hoist, and two electric traveling bulk sugar loading towers are available. Transit sheds with 103,000 square feet of covered space, and 7.5 acres of open storage space are also available.

(179) Pier 1: 1,255 feet of berthing space, 34 feet reported alongside; deck height, 9 feet; receipt of dry bulk fertilizer, and lumber; shipment of bulk raw sugar and molasses; receipt and shipment of general and containerized cargo.

(180) Pier 2: 722 feet of berthing space, 35 feet reported alongside; deck height, 10 feet; receipt and shipment of general and containerized cargo by barge; receipt of bulk cement and lumber.

(181) Pier 3: 636 feet of berthing space, 35 feet reported alongside; deck height, 9½ feet; receipt of occasional cruise ships, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas, and lumber; shipment of molasses; and occasional receipt and shipment of general and containerized cargo by barge.

(182) Hilo Bay is subject to heavy surge, particularly between October and mid-April. Large vessels make fast to mooring buoys when coming alongside Pier 1; this is necessary to assist in leaving the pier and for breasting off when the surge is excessive. The use of wire mooring lines is not advised.

(183) Most of the small craft of the area berth at Wailoa RiverSmall Boat Harbor 0.1 miles south of Wailoa River mouth; lights mark the entrance to the river. In 2001, the reported depths were 9 feet in the river channel and 7 to 10 feet in the berthing area. The Wailoa River mouth is subject to extensive shoaling, especially during the winter months. In 2006, extensive flooding created further shoaling within the channel. Local boaters have reported depths of 2.5 feet within the channel. A precautionary sign with a flashing red light has been posted at the entrance to the harbor alerting mariners to the shoaling and advises them to use caution. Vessels drafting more than 4 feet should not attempt to enter the river. The fixed highway bridge at the entrance has a clearance of 12 feet.

(184) 
 Supplies
(185) Gasoline, diesel fuel, bunker C, and water are available at the State piers; all fuels must be trucked in. Ice and some marine supplies are available in Hilo.

(186) 
 Repairs
(187) Hilo has no facilities for drydocking or making repairs to deep-draft vessels, the nearest facilities are in Honolulu. A marine railway at Hilo has a capacity of 50 tons. Several machine, electrical, and welding shops off the waterfront are available for making above-waterline repairs to vessels at the port.

(188) 
 Communications
(189) Hilo has regular interisland barge service and is a port of call for trans-pacific vessels. Inter-island passenger travel is available by air and through two cruise ships that make weekly calls in Hilo. Telephone communication is available to the other islands and to the mainland.

(190) 
 Chart 19320

(191) Leleiwi Point on the southeast side of the entrance to Hilo Bay, is marked by a mass of bare, black lava rock about 20 feet high that extends 100 yards seaward from the tree line; the low point is difficult to identify at night.

(192) The 17-mile stretch of coast between Leleiwi Point and Cape Kumukahi is a series of low bluffs meeting the ocean with abrupt descents of 10 to 40 feet. The shoreline is a jumble of lava boulders. Kea‘au 6 miles south of Leleiwi Point and 3 miles inland, is marked by two mill stacks and a water tank; the seaward stack is the most prominent. The ‘Ōla‘a plantations rise to an elevation of about 2,000 feet, above which the forest may be seen. An old lava flow reaches the sea 4 miles northwest of Cape Kumukahi and is marked by two black hills, about 50 feet high, lying close together at its seaward end.

(193) Cape Kumukahi Light (19°30'59"N., 154°48'39"W.), 156 feet above the water, is shown from a 115-foot white pyramidal skeleton tower on the east extremity of Hawaii Island. The cape is a low mass of bare, black lava with a jagged top and is clearly defined from all sides; sharp pinnacles mark the end of the point. A chain of old craters, or cinder cones, extends 7 miles southwest from the cape. The nearest cone (Kapoho crater), 1.4 miles from the cape, is 245 feet high and is heavily covered with vegetation.

(194) The southeast coast of Hawaii Island is 63 miles long between Cape Kumukahi, the east extremity, and Kalae, the south extremity. This coast is mostly bold, but passing vessels are advised to keep at least 1 mile offshore. There are no all-weather harbors or anchorages.

(195) The country southwest of Cape Kumukahi is heavily wooded, and there are numerous coconut groves along the beach. Characteristic of this coast are the lava flows, bare and rough in appearance, which extend from the hills to the sea. The old craters southwest from the cape join the ridge which forms the divide between the Puna District and Kau District.

(196) Pohoiki a small village 4 miles southwest of Cape Kumukahi, has a boat launching ramp on the north shore of a small bight. The bight is protected by a breakwater marked by a light.

(197) Puu Honuaula 5 miles southwest of Cape Kumukahi and 3 miles inland, is 844 feet high and quite prominent. The southeast side is blown out, but the remaining slopes are covered with vegetation and the rim is fringed with trees.

(198) Opihikao a village 7 miles southwest of Cape Kumukahi, is marked by a prominent grass-covered mound, 125 feet high, near its northeast beach.

(199) The shoreline between Waipuku Point and Kupapau Point 11 to 17 miles southwest of Cape Kumukahi, was reported in 2001 to be constantly changing and extending further seaward due to steady lava flows.

(200) ‘Āpua Point 27 miles southwest of the cape, is low and bare; shallow water extends 300 yards or more offshore. Keauhou Point 2 miles west of ‘Āpua Point, is another prominent feature.

(201) From 3 miles southwest of Kupapau Point to Keauhou Point, the coastal plain and the lower slopes of the mountains are devoid of vegetation; higher up the mountains are wooded. Beginning 2 miles west of Kupapau Point is a series of bluffs several hundred feet high and 1 to 3 miles back of the shore. The bluffs are marked by numerous lava flows. Kīlauea crater cannot be seen from seaward, but its location, when active, is indicated in daytime by the smoke that it discharges and at night by the glare on the clouds.

(202) At Keauhou Point the bluffs are yellow, steeper, and near the beach. The plain at the foot of the bluffs is low, and on a dark night the beach is hard to see. A small shallow bay just west of Keauhou Point is the only area between Pohoiki and Punalu‘u that offers small craft protection from the seas; it offers little protection from the winds. Keauhou Landing is along the shallow bay just west of Keauhou Point. When entering the bay, favor the west shore to avoid a reef, covered 2 feet, in the entrance. The reported depth in the entrance channel along the west shore is 6 feet. An anchorage, with a restricted swinging area and a reported depth of 9 feet, is inside the reef in the entrance. Puu Kapukapu about 2 miles west of Keauhou Point, is a yellow bluff about 1,053 feet high at its northeast end. This bluff is the most prominent landmark near the beach on this part of the coast.

(203) About 1.5 miles west of Keauhou Point is Keaoi Island which is low, close inshore, and separated from the mainland at its east extremity only by shoal water. Small boats find shelter behind this islet by entering from the west.

(204) Ka‘ū Desert the country south of Kīlauea volcano, is devoid of vegetation. The Great Crack on the west side of the 1823 lava flow from Mauna Loa, marks the west limits of the desert. The Great Crack, which is visible from seaward, passes along the east side of Puu Ulaula. The hill is 1.5 miles inland and 994 feet high. A sharply defined, low, black cone is about 5 miles inland and on the east side of the lava flow at an elevation of about 1,800 feet. A prominent fence, which extends from just east of Puu Ulaula to the shore 8 miles west of Puu Kapukapu, marks the west edge of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park.

(205) The country between the Great Crack and Punalu‘u is covered with sugarcane to an elevation of about 2,000 feet; thence the slopes are wooded to within about 6,000 feet of the summit of Mauna Loa. Here and there, bare lava flows cut up the canefields. Cane in the Kau District extends as far west as Wai‘ōhinu.

(206) 
 Chart 19322

(207) Punalu‘u 17 miles northeast from Kalae, is a small bight with a black sand beach at its head. It was a former shipping point for the town of Pāhala 3 miles inland, but the landing is no longer used and is in disrepair; a surfaced ramp is just north of the landing. Small boats find some protection in depths of 6 to 11 feet close to the east shore of the bight.

(208) The southwest part of the bight is foul. A rock, awash at half tide, is 260 yards south-southeast of the landing; another, with 8 feet of water over it, is 40 yards farther offshore in the same direction. The entrance is between these rocks and the shore to the north. A rock, with 3 feet of water over it, is 0.2 mile east of the entrance and 80 yards offshore. The northeast trades tend to haul more offshore in the vicinity of Punalu‘u Harbor, but in rough weather breakers extend completely across the entrance and passage is impossible.

(209) 
 Chart 19320

(210) The church and houses of Hīlea 1.7 miles west of Punalu‘u and 1.5 miles inland, can be seen from seaward. Back of the landing at Punalu‘u, and up to an elevation of about 3,500 feet, the slopes are broken; above this they appear regular and gradual to the summit of Mauna Loa. The upper slopes of Mauna Loa can only be seen from several miles offshore.

(211) Pu‘u‘enuhe 3 miles northwest of Punalu‘u, is the seaward end of ‘Enuhe Ridge. The butte is a conspicuous flat-topped cone with an elevation of 2,327 feet. Kaiholena Pākua and Makanau are promontories on Kaiholena Ridge which extends 3 miles northwest from the village of Hīlea. Nīnole Gulch lies between the two ridges, making the region extremely rugged, with the buttes standing out boldly. The buttes are prominent from either the southwest or northeast.

(212) Kaumaike‘ohu about 5 miles north of Punalu‘u, is a prominent cone, 3,430 feet high, on the southeast boundary of the Ka‘ū Forest Reserve.

(213) Between Punalu‘u Harbor and Honu‘apo Bay, the shore is composed of masses of black lava rock which project out into deep water. About 1 and 3 miles southwest of Punalu‘u are two conspicuous lava flows which reach the shore. Some of the slopes back of Honu‘apo Bay are covered with cane.

(214) 
 Chart 19322

(215) Honu‘apo Bay is a slight coastal indentation 13 miles northeast of Kalae. Most prominent from offshore is the 236-foot cliff 0.5 mile southwest of the bay; the upper half of the cliff shows black against the light-brown background of the hills, and the lower half is a grass-covered slide. The Honu‘apo pier is in ruins. The bay offers good anchorage in about 20 fathoms for deep-draft vessels. The bay is exposed to the trades and offers little protection for small craft.

(216) 
 Chart 19320

(217) Nā‘ālehu 11 miles northeast of Kalae and 2 miles inland, is on the south side of the base of Puu Hoomaha which is 2,109 feet high. The country between Nā‘ālehu and Kalae is a grassy plain on which cattle range.

(218) Māniania Pali begins at Kimo Point 11 miles northeast of Kalae, and ends at Waikapuna Bay 9 miles from Kalae; the black coastal cliff is 100 to 200 feet high and has a band of yellow clay on top. From Waikapuna Bay to Kamilo Point, the coast is low and rocky.

(219) Kamilo Point 6 miles northeast of Kalae, is a low, dark, lava mass on which is a black lava monument with a square base. A reef over which the sea generally breaks extends about 0.3 mile from the point.

(220) Ka‘alu‘alu Bay 1 mile west of Kamilo Point, affords good shelter for small craft during northeast trades, but is exposed during kona weather. Anchorage can be found in depths of about 10 fathoms 200 yards due west of the point on the east side of the entrance. The submerged coral reefs between the anchorage and the northeast part of the bay should be avoided, especially during periods of heavy swells.

(221) Between Ka‘alu‘alu Bay and Kalae, the grassy plain is occasionally broken by bare lava. About 2.5 miles southwest of Ka‘alu‘alu Bay, the low coastline is broken by a grayish cinder cone.

(222) Kaulana Bay 0.9 mile northeast of Kalae, is a small bay that offers excellent protection from the trades. It is best approached from southwest to avoid the submerged rocks extending offshore from a lava flow spit that makes up the east shore of the bay. A boat ramp, used by local fishermen, is on the north shore of the bay.

(223) Kalae is the south extremity of Hawaii Island. Ka Lae Light (18°54'44"N., 155°40'55"W.), 60 feet above the water, is shown from a 28-foot white concrete post with a black and white diamond-shaped dayboard on the outer end of the cape. The southeast side of the point is low; the bluff on the west side rises gently from the point to a height of 335 feet, 2 miles to the north. The bluff then leaves the shore and trends inland for several miles, increasing in height and forming the Pali o Mamalu extends 0.6 mile south of the point; all vessels should keep 1 mile off to avoid possible dangers. The shore current setting northeast against the trade wind frequently produces a rough sea on the east side of the cape. Offshore the current sets southwest.

(224) From Kalae to Upolu Point, a distance of about 95 miles, the coast has a general north trend and is mostly bold. The largest reef extends about 0.6 mile from shore in Kawaihae Bay; few of the others off the numerous capes and points make out more than 0.3 mile. All dangers can be avoided by staying at least 1 mile offshore.

(225) Honokohau Small-Boat Harbor and Kawaihae are the only sheltered harbors along the west coast of Hawaii; all others are smooth during regular northeast trades, but are exposed during kona weather. The trade winds draw around Kalae and hold north offshore for about 3 miles, generally causing a rough sea from Kalae to Kaunā Point. At Kaunā Point, the complexion of the sea changes abruptly, the sea being considerably smoother to the north.

(226) Storms from the southwest to northwest are most frequent in January and February. Some protection for small craft may be found in Keauhou, Honokohau, and Kawaihae Bays, but anchorage space is limited. Boats sometimes seek shelter along the southeast side of the island during these storms.

(227) Gasoline and a limited supply of water are available at Keauhou, Kailua Kona, and Kawaihae along the west coast. Supplies are mostly obtained from the stores on the main highway inland from the coast.

(228) The section of the west coast between Kalae and Kawaihae Bay, 79 miles north, is known as the Kona Coast. The country along this coast is broken up by numerous lava flows, varying in length from a few hundred yards to 30 miles, that have broken out from Mauna Loa and Hualālai. Between these flows are areas that are heavily wooded and covered with vegetation above an elevation of 1,500 feet, and there are large areas planted in coffee. Many of the lava flows reach the coast and terminate in bluffs, some fairly high and others only a few feet above the water. Scattered trees and bushes can be seen between many of the flows.

(229) From Pali o Mamalu to Hanamalo Point, about 16 miles northwest, are lowlands several miles wide, which rise gradually to the mountains. The country is extremely desolate, with its grayish-black slopes of bare lava. A particularly black flow lies at the base of the lighter colored cliffs of Pali o Mamalu.

(230) At an elevation of 2,000 feet the kona region is known for its cool and bracing climate and plentiful rain. Little variation in weather is experienced; there is generally a land and sea breeze, except during kona winds. This condition, however, does not apply between Kawaihae Bay and Upolu Point, since the region is affected by the winds which draw across the island.

(231) Wai‘ahukini a small fishing village at the base of Pali‘okūlani is marked by a patch of white sand. Kä‘iliki‘i (Kailikii Shoal) extends about 0.5 mile offshore to the west and north of the landing.

(232) Pu‘uhou a black, well-defined cone 273 feet high, is close to the beach 1.6 miles northwest of Wai‘ahukini.

(233) Pōhue Bay 9 miles northwest of Kalae, has a sand beach at its head where landings can be made.

(234) Na Puu a Pele are cones near the beach 12 miles northwest of Kalae. The cones are prominent landmarks, and at the summit of the highest is a black stone cairn.

(235) Kaunā Point 13.5 miles northwest of Kalae, is low, flat, and somewhat grassy, with a small hummock of graying lava 0.5 mile inland. The concrete base of a former light, nearly flush with the ground, is visible on the point. A 160-foot tower (19°03'01"N., 155°52'32"W.) is conspicuous just north-northwest of the point.

(236) Kamoi Point 16.3 miles northwest of Kalae, is a low jumble of lava rock. A small bight, south of the point, has a sand beach at its northeast extremity where small boats can land. A small shack and a skeleton tower at the head of the bight are conspicuous from seaward.

(237) Kānewa‘a Point is 18.5 miles northwest of Kalae.

(238) Okoe is at the head of Okoe Bay a cove immediately south of Hanamalo Point. The cove indents the shore more than any other in the vicinity and has a little more sand on the beach. Anchorage can be found in depths of 7 to 15 fathoms. Larger vessels can anchor in 20 fathoms by entering the bay from due west and dropping anchor with Milolii Point Light bearing 022°.

(239) Hanamalo Point 21 miles northwest of Kalae, is a low mass of lava with no prominent features. Unless close inshore, the point is difficult to distinguish from other points in the vicinity. South of Hanamalo Point, an inshore current sets south around Kalae and thence northeast along the shore to the vicinity of Keauhou Point.

(240) Milolii Point Light (19°11'13"N., 155°54'29"W.), 44 feet above the water, is shown from a 20-foot white steel pole with a black and white diamond-shaped dayboard.

(241) Miloli‘i a village 2 miles north of Hanamalo Point, has a concrete boat landing with a depth of 7 feet alongside. A hoist on the landing has a maximum capacity of 2,000 pounds. The current off the landing has a prevailing north set which sometimes reaches a velocity of 2 knots. A dangerous reef extends about 400 yards offshore at the south end of the village.

(242) A large open-air shelter with a bright roof amongst several trees is visible from the northwest, about 250 yards south of Miloli‘i landing. Much of the area around the landing and shelter is covered with vegetation, however, farther outside this area the countryside is a barren mass of black lava. There is no protected anchorage off the landing. Storms occur most frequently in January and February.

(243) The lava flow of 1926 from the slopes of Pu‘u‘oke‘oke‘o entirely destroyed the village of Ho‘ōpūloa. 1 mile north of Miloli‘i. The same flow nearly engulfed Milolii.

(244) Papa Bay 3 miles north of Miloli‘i, is a coastal indentation to the south of a prominent black lava flow of 1919. The ruins of an ancient Hawai‘ian civilization are at the north end of the bay.

(245) Three lava flows of 1950 are prominent 4.3, 7.7, and 9.3 miles north of Milolii Point Light. These flows emanating from the southwest rift zone of Mauna Loa extend into the sea, forming precipitous cliffs.

(246) Auau Point 8.6 miles north of Hanamalo Point, is the crescent-shaped rim of an old crater that has had its seaward face blown out.

(247) Lepeamoa Rock 11 miles north of Hanamalo Point, is close offshore from the island. The rock, 95 feet high, is the crescent-shaped rim of an old crater that has had its seaward face blown out. Small villages of a few houses each are scattered along the coast, 1 or 2 miles apart, between Miloli‘i and Lepeamoa Rock. The highway, which is 2 miles inland at Miloli‘i, draws nearer the coast until at Lepeamoa Rock it is only 0.5 mile inland.

(248) Kauhakō Bay 34 miles northwest of Kalae, is a small cove which has at its head a pali, or cliff, about 0.5 mile long and 120 feet high. Ho‘okena is a small village at the foot of the north end of the pali. There is a heavy concentration of coconut and shade trees along with large amounts of vegetation around the village. Anchorage can be found in depths of 15 fathoms, sandy bottom, about 300 yards off Ho‘okena. A landing near the north end of the sand beach is in ruins and unusable.

(249) The bluffs along the coast north of Ho‘okena lose their height. The slope up to the interior is not so steep as to the south, and the country is covered with brush and coffee plantations.

(250) Loa Point about 35.5 miles northwest of Kalae, is flat and low, and green to within 40 yards of the water, then rocky.

(251) Between Loa Point and Ho‘okena is the settlement of Keālia which is at the north end of a long white sand and coral rubble beach. The villages along this section of the coast usually have a few houses on the beach, but most of the houses are on the highway 1 or 2 miles inland.

(252) 
 Chart 19332

(253) Hōnaunau Bay 37 miles northwest of Kalae, indents the coast about 500 yards and is about 500 yards in width. The bay lies between two flat lava points. Pu‘uhonua Point on the south, is lower and smaller and is marked by the 12-foot-high stone walls of the City of Refuge and by a grove of tall coconut trees. The City of Refuge is of historic interest and is now maintained as a National Historical Park of about 182 acres. In former times, criminals or refugees reaching the place were safe until such a time as the king of the land took action. Vessels anchor in depths of 4 to 8 fathoms 150 yards from the south shore. A surfaced ramp (19°25'24"N., 155°54'41"W.) is just north of the sand beach on the southeast side of the bay. Small boats can easily land on the beach during normal weather.

(254) Palemanō Point on the south side of the entrance to Kealakekua Bay, is low and flat, with scattered coconut trees and temple ruins near its outer end. The buildings of a resort camp on the point are prominent. A mass of bare rocks extends 125 yards off the north side of the point. About 0.4 mile north of the point, an old lava flow reaches the shore.

(255) Kealakekua Bay 40 miles northwest of Kalae, is marked on its north side by a light on Cook Point. The bay is about 2 miles wide between Palemanō Point and Keawekāheka Point, and indents the coast about 1 mile. The shore is low, except on the northeast side where a precipitous cliff between 400 and 600 feet high extends about 0.5 mile. A narrow reef fringes the shore between the south end of the cliff and Palemanō Point. The bay is free of obstructions, affords good anchorage in all but strong southwest winds, and is by far the best anchorage along this coast. In choosing an anchorage it is well to remember that in the daytime a sea breeze will prevail, shifting to a land breeze at night. The bottom is of coral and sand and is only fair holding ground.

(256) Kaawaloa Cove is the north part of Kealakekua Bay and lies between the high cliff and Cook Point. It was here that Captain James Cook was killed by the native Hawai‘ians in 1779. Cook’s Monument is a concrete shaft, 25 feet high, near the shore of the inner side of Cook Point. A concrete landing, with a depth of about 6 feet alongside, affords a means for visitors to reach the monument. Kaawaloa Cove is within the boundary of Kealakekua Bay Marine Life Conservation District and State Park. State regulations forbid anchoring, except in an emergency, and overnight mooring at other than designated locations within the park boundaries. A copy of the regulations can be obtained from the Department of Land and Natural Resources.

(257) The village of Napo‘opo‘o consists of a few houses scattered among the coconut trees just south of the cliff. Water and provisions are scarce. The landing, which has a depth of about 4 feet alongside, is in the middle of the village. A church spire is fairly prominent from offshore.

(258) Keawekāheka Point on the north side of the entrance to Kealakekua Bay, is a low, bare, lava point. An extensive lava flow reaches from the point to the high cliff at the head of the bay.

(259) 
 Chart 19327

(260) Puu Ohau 1.5 miles north of Keawekāheka Point, is a green cone, 231 feet high, near the beach. The cone has a blowhole in the middle, and its seaward side is blown out, forming a red cliff.

(261) Keikiwaha Point 2 miles north of Keawekāheka Point, is low, black and jagged, with coconut trees on it. About 2 miles inland from the point, and on the highway, are a stack, a church and the buildings of Kainaliu.

(262) From Napo‘opo‘o to Kailua Kona is the most thickly settled section of the coast; cultivated fields of coffee extend both ways from the highway that parallels the shore 1 to 2 miles inland.

(263) Kaukalaelae Point 4.4 miles north of Keawekāheka Point, is low and flat. The white hotel on the point is one of the most prominent landmarks along this coast.

(264) Keauhou Bay 45 miles northwest of Kalae, indents the coast 0.3 mile and is 300 yards wide between entrance points. The bay is between two lava flows at the foot of a gentle slope and, though small, is one of the best protected along the Kona coast. Keauhou Bay Entrance Directional Light (19°33'43"N., 155°57'44"W.), 23 feet above the water, is shown from a post at the head of the bay. The Keauhou schoolhouse on the highway 1.5 miles inland is fairly prominent from offshore. The bottom is extremely irregular and has many coral heads with depths of 5 to 6 feet over them. A reef extends 100 yards off the north entrance point. By maintaining a lookout for coral heads, boats of 4-foot draft can enter the bay for anchorage. Breakers frequently extend across the mouth of the bay. Launching ramps are near the light at the head of the bay and on the southeast side. A pier used mainly for embarking and disembarking passengers for excursion cruises is at the southeast end of the bay, near the launching ramp. Fuel is available in limited quantities and is trucked in; there is no fuel dock. Several mooring buoys are in the bay.

(265) Kahalu‘u is a small village about 1 mile north of Keauhou.

(266) Hualālai in the central west part of the island, is a conical peak 8,269 feet high, covered with vegetation to its summit and prominent from any point of approach. Its west slopes terminate in a bare lava plain about 4 miles wide. The plain forms a low beach consisting of sand in some places and lava rocks in others.

(267) 
 Chart 19331

(268) Kailua Bay 50 miles northwest of Kalae, is a dent in the coast at the south end of the flat plain which extends north to Kawaihae Bay.

(269) Kailua on the north side of the bay, formerly a barge terminal, is now used by cruise and charter boats. Large ships anchor offshore and ships’ tenders are used for transportation to shore. Kailua Light (19°38'16"N., 156°00'03"W.), 32 feet above the water, is shown from a white pyramidal concrete tower on Kukailimoku Point which is on the northwest side of the bay entrance. Also prominent is the church spire east of Kailua pier and the radio tower northwest of the pier.

(270) No breakwater protects this small exposed harbor. Access is good, and no channel is required to reach open water. The turning basin east of the pier is 12 to 20 feet deep and about 500 feet square. The approach to the pier is marked by a 023° directional light. The west side of the pier has a surfaced boat-launching ramp. The east side of the pier has a pump-out station and a marine hoist with a maximum capacity of 2,000 pounds.

(271) 
 Chart 19327

(272) The coast between Kailua Bay and Kawaihae Bay is a black, jagged mass of lava. The numerous capes and indentations are caused by the lava flows over the level country. Between Keahole and Upolu Points, the trade winds draw over the mountains, at times causing a very strong offshore wind. Vessels anchoring in this vicinity should be prepared to use both anchors, as the prevailing N current prevents laying to the wind.

(273) Kaiwi Point about 2 miles northwest of Kailua, is low and black, with some small patches of white sand. Shoal water extends about 0.3 mile offshore on the south side of the point, but on the west side the 100-fathom curve is only 0.3 mile offshore.

(274) Honokohau Small-Boat Harbor at the head of Honokohau Bay about 1 mile north of Kaiwi Point, is entered through a marked dredged channel that leads to two basins in the harbor. Two boat ramps, a haul-out ramp and moorings are available in the harbor. A wharfinger is available on weekdays from 0630 to 1730 and can assist in arranging delivery of petroleum products by tank truck. A fuel facility and oil disposal shed are available. The harbor office phone number is 808–329–4215.

(275) Keahole Point 57 miles northwest of Kalae, is the west extremity of Hawaii Island. Keahole Point Light (19°43'40"N., 156°03'40"W.), 43 feet above the water, is shown from a post with a black and white diamond-shaped dayboard. Kona International Airport, 1.2 miles east-northeast of the point, is prominent when transiting along the coast. An aerobeacon atop the 65-foot control tower is more prominent at night than Keahole Point Light. The point is low and well defined, and consists of black lava with some small vegetation. White patches of sand may be seen between the fingers of the lava. A north current sets past Keahole Point. Frequently there are small tide rips near the point, and 2 miles to the north the rips are violent when the northeast trade winds are strong. A berth of 0.5 mile clears the point in deep water. Mariners should not anchor within 1 mile offshore or 500 yards north and 1000 yards south of Keahole Point because of submerged pipelines.

(276) Puu Waawaa (see chart 19320), 13 miles east of Keahole Point, is prominent and can often be seen when Hualālai is hidden by the clouds. The mountain, 3,971 feet high, is dome-shaped, with deep gorges on its side, and rises about 1,000 feet above the slope on which it stands.

(277) Between Makolea Point and Kawili Point 3 and 4 miles north of Keahole Point, shoal water extends about 0.7 mile offshore. The sand and coral bottom is plainly visible. A current sets northeast along this coast, and there are tide rips off Makolea Point. Offshore, beyond the 2,000-fathom curve, the current has been observed to set east toward the coast. When a heavy swell is running, breakers extend about 0.5 mile offshore. Strangers should give these points a berth of 1.5 miles. The village of Mahaiula is at the head of the unimportant bay between the two points. Between Keahole and Mano Points are several small bays that are rarely used.

(278) Kuili 5 miles north of Keahole Point and 0.3 mile inland, is a brown crater 342 feet high. The hill marks the seaward end of a series of cones on the ridge extending from the northwest slope of Hualālai. An extensive shoal extends about 0.5 mile offshore about 2 miles north of Kuili and between the villages of Kukio and Kaupulehu.

(279) Mano Point 9 miles northeast of Keahole Point, is a poorly defined, rounded, flat mass of lava.

(280) Kīholo Bay 11 miles northeast of Keahole Point, indents the coast 0.5 mile and is 1 mile wide. The head of the bay is foul, but local vessels have anchored close to the black lava shore on the south side. A southwest current, with an average velocity of about 0.5 knot, has been observed in Kīholo Bay. The village of Kīholo consists of a few houses in a coconut grove at the head of the bay.

(281) Puu Anahulu (see chart 19320), 4 miles east of Kīholo, is a prominent yellowish cone, 1,523 feet high, with lava flows on three sides.

(282) Kapalaoa is a village on the south side of a small bight 3.5 miles northeast of Kīholo. The bight is foul and can only be used by small boats with local knowledge.

(283) 
 Charts 19330, 19327

(284) Puako Bay is a small indentation in the coast 20 miles northeast of Keahole Point. There is no protection for large vessels, and very little is available for small craft. The bay is open to west and northwest winds and is foul with coral heads and reefs. The shores are mostly black, smooth lava extending into the water on a gentle slope, with many detached rocks of the same material. A small landing is at Puako on the southeast side of the bay, and many houses are along the south shore.

(285) Small boats can approach the landing on a course of 137° until within 250 yards of it, where the channel is marked by private buoys; a private light is on shore near the landing. A reef off Waima Point 1 mile southwest of Puako, is easily recognized from a safe distance offshore. Anchorage can be found about 0.8 mile northwest of Puako in depths of 12 to 15 fathoms, sand and coral bottom.

(286) A large hotel and golf course can be seen at Kaunaoa Beach 2.7 miles northeast of Waima Point and a cluster of three tanks, about 0.5 mile inland from Puako Bay, are prominent.

(287) The coast, which has a northeast trend to Puako, turns north for 3 miles, then gradually recurves to the northwest, forming Kawaihae Bay. The black lava flows are no longer characteristic, and the back country, with its extensive slopes, is some of the best grazing land in the State.

(288) Kawaihae 3.5 miles north of Puako, is a commercial deepwater harbor basin in the north part of Kawaihae Bay. The basin is protected by stone revetment and fill on the south and by a breakwater, marked by lights, on the west. The entrance channel is marked by a 120° lighted range, lighted and unlighted buoys. A small-boat basin, just north of the main basin, has a dock and surfaced ramp. The breakwater on the west side of the small-boat basin is marked by a light at the south end.

(289) 
 Prominent features
(290) Kawaihae Light (20°02'29"N., 155°49'58"W.), 59 feet above the water, is shown from a 34-foot white pyramidal concrete tower on the northwest side of Kawaihae. Deep and heavily wooded Honokoa Gulch is northwest of the harbor, and Pu‘ukoholā Heiau is a square of dark rocks on a 50-foot knoll southeast of the breakwater. Puu Kamalii 1 mile northeast of Kawaihae, is 690 feet high and fairly conspicuous.

(291) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(292) The lines established for Kawaihae Harbor are described in 33 CFR 80.1470 chapter 2.

(293) 
 Anchorages
(294) Good anchorage, except in kona weather, may be found in 4 to 8 fathoms between Honokoa Gulch and the outer end of the entrance channel.

(295) 
 Dangers
(296) Reefs that bare in places extend as much as 0.5 mile from the outer side of the breakwater and from the shore to the south.

(297) 
 Regulated navigation area
(298) A safety zone is in Kawaihae Harbor, adjacent to the commercial piers. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40 and 165.14-1414 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(299) 
 Currents
(300) The strong north current felt off Keahole Point and Makolea Point passes offshore at Kawaihae, where there is practically no current.

(301) Weather, Kawaihae and vicinity
(302) This subject has been discussed on previous pages, but vessels maneuvering in Kawaihae Harbor are again warned to be on the alert for sudden strong offshore gusts caused by the trade winds drawing over the mountains.

(303) Pilotage, Kawaihae
(304) Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign vessels and for U.S. vessels under register in the foreign trade; it is optional for U.S. vessels in the coastwise trade with a Federal licensed pilot on board.

(305) The pilot boat, NININI, is yellow and 22 feet long with the word “PILOT” written in black letters on the hull. The boat displays the standard pilot lights at night and the International Code flag “H” by day. The pilot boarding area is 1.5 miles west-northwest of the harbor entrance. The pilots monitor and work VHF-FM channel 12. Mariners are requested to give at least 24 hours advance notice of arrival with gross tonnage, length, and draft of vessel; telephone (808–537–4169). Additionally, vessels are requested to rig the pilot ladder 2 feet above the water on the lee side and maintain a speed of not more than 5 knots.

(306) 
 Towage
(307) Tug service must be arranged for in advance; there are no tugs available in the harbor.

(308) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration, and agricultural quarantine
(309) (See chapter 3, Vessel Arrival Inspections, and Appendix A for addresses.)

(310) Quarantine is enforced in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service. (See Public Health Service, chapter 1.)

(311) 
 Harbor regulations
(312) These are established by the Harbors Division of the Hawaii Department of Transportation and are enforced by the harbormaster.


(314) 
 Wharves
(315) The State-owned waterfront facilities are on the northeast side of the harbor basin. General cargo is usually handled by ships’ tackle, and cargo to and from barges by forklift trucks.

(316) Kawaihae Pier 1: Just inside harbor basin; 410-foot face, 20 to 24 feet reported alongside; deck height, 8 feet; 8,700 square feet covered storage; 20 refrigerated container positions; receipt and shipment of general and containerized cargo by barge; receipt of bulk cement and lumber; operated by State of Hawaii, Department of Transportation, Harbors Division; and others.

(317) Kawaihae Pier 2: 200 yards southeast of barge wharf; 1,152-foot face with 38-foot ends; 35 feet reported alongside; deck height, 8 feet; 12,000 square feet covered storage; pipelines extending from wharf to 5 steel storage tanks in rear with 41,000 barrel capacity; receipt and shipment of general cargo and automobiles; shipment of aggregate; receipt of petroleum products; operated by State of Hawaii, Department of Transportation, Harbors Division; and others.

(318) A 100-foot-wide concrete ramp with mooring dolphins, used exclusively for handling military cargo to and from U.S. Government-owned landing craft, is at the SW end of the harbor.

(319) 
 Supplies
(320) Water and limited amounts of fuel oil and diesel oil are available.

(321) 
 Communications
(322) Kawaihae has interisland barge and air service and is a port of call for transpacific vessels.

(323) 
 Chart 19327

(324) Between Kawaihae and Māhukona, the country is uncultivated grazing land. Mountain slopes terminate in cliffs at the coast and are cut intermittently by ravines.

(325) 
 Chart 19329

(326) Māhukona Harbor is a small, open bight 10 miles northwest of Kawaihae and 6 miles southwest of Upolu Point. There are several abandoned warehouses and oil tanks around the harbor. The shore is rocky and the slopes back of the village are partially covered with algaroba trees.

(327) Mahukona Light (20°10'49"N., 155°54'05"W.), 64 feet above the water, is shown from a 22-foot white pyramidal concrete tower on Kā‘oma Point, south of the village.

(328) 
 Magnetic disturbance
(329) Differences of as much as 3° from normal variation have been observed in the vicinity of Kauili Point about 0.7 mile north of Māhukona.

(330) Anchorage may be selected 0.2 mile southwest of Makaohule Point, in depths of 10 to 15 fathoms, sand and coral bottom. An anchorage with less wind can be found 0.3 mile northwest of the point and about 400 yards off the beach.

(331) Reports indicate that the inshore current usually sets north with considerable velocity. However, during the period of current observations the average north drift was about 0.2 knot, both north and south velocities of nearly 1 knot were measured, and the tidal current averaged less than 0.2 knot at strength. During the observations, winds were light to moderate and variable in direction. Strong offshore winds, accompanied by violent gusts from varying directions, are frequently experienced during the normal northeast trades. Because of these conditions, vessels should anchor with plenty of cable and have a second anchor ready to let go.

(332) A public landing is at the head of the bight which has a hoist that is poor condition. The private landing on the north side is in ruins. Both landings are for small boats only.

(333) 
 Chart 19327

(334) The coast between Māhukona and Upolu Point is a series of low, black bluffs. Back of the bluffs, the country is marked by many cinder cones and rises gently to the Kohala Mountains. The cuts and fills of the railroad that formerly skirted the coast from Māhukona to Kohala may be seen when close inshore.

(335) 
 Chart 19320

(336) ‘Alenuihāhā Channel between the islands of Hawaii and Maui, is 26 miles wide in its narrowest part, between Upolu Point and Puhilele Point. The channel is free of obstructions and is deep close to the shores.

(337) Strong trade winds usually prevail, causing the channel to be very rough and a current of 1 to 2 knots to set west. Passage is very difficult for smaller vessels, especially when going east. During the calms that frequently follow, there is at times an east set of about 1 knot, and during kona winds the east set may reach a velocity of 2 or 3 knots. The channel is roughest and the west current strongest when the wind is between north-northeast and east-northeast. During periods of strong northeast trades, violent tide rips may be encountered 2 miles north of Keahole Point, probably caused by the meeting of the southwest offshore current with the north inshore current. When bound from Upolu Point to ‘Alalākeiki Channel, an onshore set is sometimes felt when reaching the lee of Maui.

(338) 
 Chart 19340

(339) Maui 26 miles northwest of Hawaii, has an area of 728 square statute miles and is second in size of the eight large islands. The island is 42 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction and 23 miles in greatest width. A low, flat isthmus joins the two distinct mountain masses that make up the island. The crater of Haleakalā (house of the sun), 10,025 feet high, is near the center of the east and larger part of the island. On the northwest side of the crater the land slopes gently, while on the south and east sides, it is much steeper and in some places precipitous. Ko‘olau Gap on the north side, and Kaupō Gap on the southeast side, are two large openings in the side of the crater. Puu Kukui 5,788 feet high, is near the center of the west and smaller part of the island, which is cut up by rugged peaks and deep valleys and gulches.

(340) 
 Anchorages
(341) Anchorages are numerous on the southwest side of Maui; the first requirement under ordinary conditions is shelter from the trade winds.

(342) 
 Currents
(343) In the vicinity of Maui, currents are variable, depending to a great extent upon the velocity and direction of the wind. Usually there is a west flow in the offshore areas along the north and south coasts, which is part of the general west oceanic drift accompanying the prevailing northeast trade winds. Much of the flow along the south coast appears to continue west past the south coast of Kaho‘olawe. Weak, variable currents are reported in ‘Alalākeiki Channel, and there is a north flow in Auau Channel. Near the shores of the island the currents are complicated by tidal effects, wind and counter currents.

(344) Weather, Maui
(345) The trade winds divide at Ka‘uiki Head, one part following the trend of the coast northwest and the other part following the south coast. The winds following the northwest coast divide again at the isthmus, one part drawing south and often reaching great force in the vicinity of Maalaea Bay, and the other part following the trend of the coast around the northwest end of Maui and through Pailolo Channel, with the greater force on the Moloka‘i side of the channel. That part of the trades following the trend of the south coast of Maui divides, with part continuing along the south shore of Kaho‘olawe and the other part drawing through ‘Alalākeiki Channel, around the north end of Kaho‘olawe and west through Kealaikahiki Channel.

(346) On the south coast of Maui, a sea breeze frequently sets in about 0900 and continues until after sundown, when the land breeze springs up. Light airs or calms are generally found in the vicinity of Molokini Islet and again along the west shore of Maui between Hekili and Keka‘a Points. In the vicinity of Lahaina a light onshore breeze is generally felt, while farther out in Auau Channel the northeast trades are noticed.

(347) Rainfall is quite heavy on the windward side of the island and light on the lee side.

(348) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration, and agricultural quarantine.
(349) (See chapter 3, Vessel Arrival Inspections, and Appendix A for addresses.)

(350) Quarantine is enforced in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service. (See Public Health Service, chapter 1.)

(351) 
 Supplies
(352) Marine supplies are available in limited quantities for small craft at Kahului, Wailuku, Lahaina, and Maalaea. Fuel and water are available at Kahului, Maalaea, and Lahaina.

(353) 
 Repairs
(354) Some machine repairs can be made at Kahului. Minor repairs of small craft can be accomplished at Maalaea.

(355) 
 Communications
(356) Maui has telephone communication with the other islands and with the mainland. Passenger and freight service travels over good to fair highways that extend to most parts of the island. Kahului is a port of call for interisland and transpacific shipping. The island has regularly scheduled air service.

(357) From Hāna Bay to Cape Hanamanioa, the coast has a generally west-southwest trend. Between Hāna Bay and Nuu Landing the coast consists of high, rough bluffs, broken up by numerous small capes and indentations. Vegetation may be seen as far as Kaupō Gap. The entire south face of Haleakalā is steep and eroded, presenting a reddish-brown appearance, dotted here and there with green patches. The slopes become less steep as the shore is approached. From Nuu Landing to Cape Hanamanioa the coast is bare, with practically no sign of habitation. Dangers lie offshore in the vicinity of ‘Ālau Island, Āhole Rock, and between Pohakueaea Point and Cape Hanamanioa. Otherwise, the 10-fathom curve lies within 0.2 mile of the shore. Landings can be made during trade-wind weather in the numerous coves along the coast between Mū‘olea Point and Nuu Landing. There are no suitable anchorages between Nuu Landing and Cape Hanamanioa.

(358) 
 Chart 19341

(359) Hāna Bay lies between Ka‘uiki Head and Nānu‘alele Point at the east end of Maui. The bay is about 0.4 mile in diameter and is open to the east. Hāna is on the south side of the bay.

(360) Ka‘uiki Head on the south side of Hāna Bay entrance, is a crater 390 feet high; the outer half of the crater has eroded, leaving the inner side exposed. Because it is joined to the rest of Maui by a comparatively low neck of land, Ka‘uiki Head has the appearance from a distance of a separate island. Kauiki Head Light (20°45'26"N., 155°58'46"W.), 85 feet above the water, is shown from a 9-foot white pyramidal concrete tower on an islet close to the northeast side of the crater.

(361) The shores of Hāna Bay are rocky except for two short beaches, one at the S end of the bay and the other on the northwest side. A shoal, usually marked by breakers, extends halfway across the bay from the middle of the north shore. A small 16-foot rocky spot is 350 yards north of the light. Numerous rocks, some bare at all tides, extend for 200 yards off Nānu‘alele Point. The point is low, flat lava on the north side of Hāna Bay. Twin Rocks are two bare rocks, with deep water close-to, about 300 yards northeast of the light; the inner and larger rock is 15 feet high. About 200 yards south and 300 yards southeast of outer Twin Rock are Inner Pinnacle Rock about 3 feet high, and Outer Pinnacle Rock about 5 feet high.

(362) The entrance channel to Hāna Bay is between Twin Rocks and the 16-foot shoal and is unmarked. A local rule is to avoid entering the harbor when the seas are breaking at the entrance.

(363) The bay does not afford a desirable anchorage. Small vessels sometimes anchor in the southwest portion of the bay, but swinging room is limited. Anchorages in the bay are exposed to northeast winds and sea, and during strong southwest blows vessels are apt to drag anchor. In the absence of local knowledge, anchorage should be attempted only by small craft.

(364) 
 Currents
(365) Just outside the bay a tidal current reaches its south strength when the tide at Honolulu is rising and its north strength when the Honolulu tide is falling. south and north velocities of about 1 knot and 1.5 knots, respectively, have been observed. Farther offshore, a strong north or northeast current has been reported. Off Ka‘uiki Head and Nānu‘alele Point, rough seas occur when a northeast wind blows against the northeast current.

(366) No breakwater protects this small, exposed harbor. The turning basin is 20 to 30 feet deep and about 600 feet by 800 feet. The State-owned T-pier is in poor condition and has been condemned. A surfaced ramp for launching small boats is adjacent to the T-pier, however, its’ orientation leaves it open to swells from the north which can make launching extremely difficult. Small boats can also be launched from the sand beach at the south end of the bay.

(367) 
 Chart 19340

(368) Pu‘uokahaula 545 feet high, is the highest of five hills 0.7 mile inland from Hāna; the stone memorial cross atop the hill is sometimes lighted at night.

(369) ‘Ālau Island 1.5 miles south of Ka‘uiki Head and 0.4 mile offshore, is 100 yards in diameter and 150 feet high, is grass covered and has a few coconut palms. Between the island and Maui is an extensive reef. Tidal currents of 0.5 knot, setting north and south, have been observed near ‘Ālau Island. Off the island is a strong northeast current, and there is an eddy between the island and Ka‘uiki Head.

(370) Two rocks with about 9 feet of water over them are close together about 0.7 mile southeast of ‘Ālau Island. Under favorable conditions, these rocks appear as small, yellowish-brown spots in the water. However, they are seldom seen and do not break in moderate seas. Vessels may avoid the rocks by giving ‘Ālau Island a berth of about 1.5 miles in passing.

(371) Iwiopele about 1.5 miles south of Hāna Bay, is a formation similar to Ka‘uiki Head and resembles the latter in size and appearance.

(372) Mokae Cove almost 1 mile south of Iwiopele, affords a landing for small boats in northeast weather. South currents with velocities up to 0.5 knot have been observed 0.5 mile from the shore in this locality.

(373) From Maka‘alae Point 3 miles south of Ka‘uiki Head, the coastal trend is southwest. There are several villages between Mokae Cove and Wailua Cove. A church spire is prominent on the bluff at Pu‘uiki 3.5 miles southwest from Ka‘uiki Head.

(374) Wailua Cove is at the mouth of a valley 5.5 miles southwest from Ka‘uiki Head. Inland from the cove and halfway up the mountain is a high waterfall that is usually conspicuous from offshore. A white cross, below the waterfall, is visible. Landings may be made during normal trade-wind weather in almost any of the coves along the coast, although the swell enters all of them. Mū‘olea Point a mile east of Wailua Cove, is rounded and rocky.

(375) Kipahulu 8 miles southwest of Ka‘uiki Head and 0.5 mile west of Puhilele Point is a ranch settlement on the west side of deep Kipahulu Valley. Āhole Rock about 0.3 mile off the shore below Kipahulu, is low and flat, and has a bare appearance; anchorage in the vicinity is not recommended.

(376) Ka‘āpahu Bay 1.5 miles west of Kipahulu, is a small coastal dent which sometimes can be used for small-boat anchorage in trade-wind weather; there are depths of 4 fathoms about 200 yards off the pebble beach.

(377) Kaupo Landing 11 miles southwest of Ka‘uiki Head, is the best in the vicinity during trade-wind weather. Adjacent land is divided into small homesteads, and cattle raising is the principal occupation. Vessels anchor well off and east of the landing. Strong east winds make landings difficult.

(378) Ka‘īlio Point 13 miles southwest of Ka‘uiki Head, is 73 feet high, narrow, and at the east end of Mamalu Bay. A prominent church is on the highway directly north of the point. Trade-wind anchorage may be found about 300 yards from the head of the bay in depths of 10 fathoms, sandy bottom.

(379) Kaupō Gap is the large opening, about 1.3 miles wide, in the southeast side of Haleakalā Crater. An immense old lava flow slopes gradually from the gap to the coast. The wide U-shaped gap at the top is a good landmark, day or night, for Ka‘īlio Point. The brush-covered lava flow is the dividing line between the forest and brush of the east part and the barren west part of the south coast. Waterfalls are numerous east of the gap.

(380) Low Apole Point 15 miles southwest of Ka‘uiki Head, is composed of black, jagged rock. The point marks the seaward end of the Kaupō lava flow.

(381) Nuu Landing is a small bight on the west side of Apole Point. Small vessels can find anchorage in depths of about 8 fathoms.

(382) From Nuu Landing to Pohakueaea Point 12 miles to the west the coast is barren and deep water is close-to. All dangers are close to the bluffs. A few homesteads may be seen on the slopes that rise to the rim of Haleakalā. The slopes are cut by gulches and are barren except for a scattering of trees about halfway up. At Pohakueaea Point, the 20-fathom curve begins to trend offshore.

(383) A pinnacle rock with depths of less than 12 feet over it is reported to exist within 0.5 mile of the shore somewhere between Pohakueaea Point and La Perouse Bay. The rock may be off Pohakueaea Point as an extension of the lava flow that forms the point. Vessels making the run along this coast in recent years have observed no indication of an offshore danger; however, they give Cape Kinau a berth of about 1 mile, as it is known that a steamer struck bottom in the vicinity of the cape, probably about 0.2 mile offshore.

(384) Luala‘ilua Hills 6 miles west of Nuu Landing and 2 miles inland, are a group of red mounds about 2,000 feet high.

(385) Hōkūkano 1 mile southwest of Luala‘ilua Hills, is a conspicuous red cone with a lava flow reaching the sea in a high black mass.

(386) Pimoe 2.4 miles west of Hōkūkano, is a red dome, irregular in shape, with its east side broken. The dome, 1,766 feet high, is the crater from which the large, fan-shaped lava flow in the vicinity of Pohakueaea Point had its origin.

(387) 
 Chart 19347

(388) Cape Hanamanioa the southwest extremity of Maui, is a black lava mass. Hanamanioa Point Light (20°35'00"N., 156°24'43"W.), 73 feet above the water, is shown from a 21-foot post with a black and white diamond-shaped dayboard on the cape. A current is reported to set constantly northwest past the cape; however, a short series of observations a mile southeast of the light indicates a tidal current with a velocity of 0.8 knot at strength.

(389) La Perouse Bay between Cape Hanamanioa and Cape Kinau, is about 0.7 mile wide and indents the coast about 0.5 mile. On the northwest side of the bay is Puu o Kanaloa a low yellowish-brown cone at the water's edge, with its seaward side blown out. The crater is surrounded by a lava flow from Kalua o Lapa a small, black cone about 1 mile north of the bay. A rock covered 10 feet is in the middle of the entrance to the bay. A rocky outcrop is on the northwest side of the bay. Strangers are advised to exercise extreme caution in the bay.

(390) Cape Kinau 1.5 miles northwest of Cape Hanamanioa, is a broad, low, black, lava point and a protected area of a Natural Area Reserve. A rock with 4½ feet of water over it is 400 yards offshore near the north end of the cape.

(391) Puu Olai about 2.5 miles north of Cape Kinau, is the most prominent landmark in this vicinity. The hill is brown in color, 367 feet high, and consists of three bare knolls, of which the southernmost is the highest.

(392) Molokini 5.5 miles northwest of Cape Hanamanioa, is a small crescent-shaped islet about 0.3 mile long and 156 feet high. The islet is the bare rim of a crater, the north part of which is submerged. Molokini Island Light (20°37'50"N., 156°29'51"W.), 186 feet above the water, is shown from a 30-foot pole with a red and white diamond-shaped dayboard. A reef extends 300 yards north from the northwest end of the islet; there is deep water close to the south side. Vessels pass on either side of the islet. In 1984, unexploded ordnance was reported in the vicinity of the islet; caution is advised.

(393) Makena Anchorage 1 mile north of Puu Olai, is exposed to kona weather, but affords good holding ground during the trades. Anchorage can be had in depths of 12 to 15 fathoms off Nahuna Point with a fairly prominent church bearing 100°. A few houses may be seen among the trees on the rocky point at the north side of the bight, and a prominent house is at the south end of the sand beach. The strong trade winds that are felt farther north in Maalaea Bay are not pronounced at Makena. Secondary roads lead along the coast and inland from the village. Anchorage can also be found in Ahihi Bay just south of Puu Olai.

(394) The country back of Makena rises gently to the mountains. The lower slopes are covered with cactus, while the slopes higher up are wooded in places. From Makena to Kīhei the coast has a general north trend and is heavily developed with beach homes and hotels. The country back of the coast is like that in the vicinity of Makena.

(395) Keawakapu is 8 miles north of Cape Hanamanioa. An apartment building on the small point at Keawakapu is the most prominent landmark along this coast. A fish haven, 200 yards by 1,150 yards, is 0.7 mile souithwest of Keawakapu.

(396) 
 Chart 19350

(397) Maalaea Bay is a large bight midway along the southwest coast of Maui. The shores are low, mostly sandy, and fringed with algaroba trees. The isthmus behind the bay and the slopes on either side are cultivated in sugarcane. Several hotels and resort developments can be seen along the east side of the bay and three stacks are prominent in about 20°48'02"N., 156°29'37"W.

(398) Maalaea Bay is only a fair anchorage. Fresh winds sweep across the isthmus during the trades, and the bay is completely exposed to kona storms. The holding quality of the ground is poor. A north current has been reported in the bay. In the central and east portions the bottom is very irregular. A reef fringes the shore for a distance of 3.5 miles south of Kīhei. Off Kalepolepo, where the reef is widest, a 14-foot spot is 0.5 mile offshore along the edge of the reef. Broken ground with a least depth of 3 fathoms lies about 0.7 mile west-southwest of the Kīhei wharf. A shoal with a least depth of 7 fathoms is in the center of the bay; shoals with 3¾ and 4½ fathoms are northeast of this shoal. Strangers should pass well offshore.

(399) Kalepolepo is on the east side of Maalaea Bay, 11 miles north of Cape Hanamanioa. A large old fishpond extends 0.2 mile from shore. Local vessels anchor behind the reefs in depths of 3 to 4 feet.

(400) Kīhei is on the east side of Maalaea Bay 12 miles north of Cape Hanamanioa. A settlement is scattered among the trees and along the beach in the vicinity of the remains of a wharf.

(401) Keālia Pond just northwest of Kīhei, is separated from the bay by a narrow sand strip over which the shore highway passes.

(402) Maalaea is a village on the northwest shore of Maalaea Bay. A few buildings can be seen among the algaroba trees. The boat harbor at the village is about 500 yards long east to west, about 200 yards across, and is protected by breakwaters. Depths in the harbor are about 7 feet in the west basin and about 10 feet in the northeast basin, mud bottom. In 2009, a reported depth of 8 feet was available in the entrance channel. The entrance channel is marked by a 338.4° lighted range and private buoys. Inside the harbor, a reef and shoal area extends into the center of the harbor. Care must be taken to avoid these areas when approaching the slips on the north side of the harbor. Gasoline, diesel fuel (by fuel truck) and a launching ramp are available; engine repairs can be made. The harbormaster can be contacted on VHF-FM channel 68 or by phone at 808–243–5818. The harbor office is at the head of the harbor. The harbor experiences considerable surge during all but calm weather.

(403) 
 Coast Guard Station
(404) Coast Guard Station Maui is just inside the breakwaters of Maalaea Village and can be contacted at 1-808–986–0023.

(405) 
 Chart 19347

(406) McGregor Point Light (20°46'39"N., 156°31'22"W.), 72 feet above the water, is shown from a 20-foot white tower on McGregor Point on the west side of Maalea Bay. A row of wind turbines is prominient north-northeast of the light. The coast between McGregor Point and Olowalu is broken by low bluffs rising from the water’s edge, behind which the country presents a barren appearance. The mountains have sharp jagged peaks and are cut by deep gorges.

(407) Papawai Point 0.9 mile west of McGregor Point, is the southernmost point of west Maui. Deep water is close inshore at the point.

(408) Olowaluis on Hekili Point 18 miles northwest of Cape Hanamanioa. The deep gulch of Olowalu Stream appears as a gap in the mountains when abreast of the point and is an excellent night mark.

(409) Launiupoko Point about 2 miles northwest of Olowalu, is low and rounding. About 0.8 mile inland from the point is an 808-foot hill that has a mottled, grayish-brown appearance. Shoal water extends about 0.2 mile offshore from the point northwest to Lahaina. The highway skirts the shore between these points, and automobile lights along the road are usually the only lights seen along the coast.

(410) 
 Chart 19348

(411) Lahaina is 23 miles northwest of Cape Hanamanioa. Once the whaling capital of the mid-Pacific, Lahaina is now a colorful resort town and a favorite port of call of yachtsmen and boating enthusiasts. In the vicinity of Lahaina, canefields extend along the coast and for several miles inland on the ridges that lead to high, rugged mountains. A mill stack near the center of Lahaina is very prominent and a spire is visible on Puunoa Point. A reef, over which the sea generally breaks, extends about 350 yards offshore from Makila Point, 1 mile southeast of Lahaina, to Puunoa Point, a mile northwest of Lahaina. Mala is a small settlement on the north side of Puunoa Point. The concrete wharf at Mala is in poor condition and is no longer in use. A breakwater extends along the northeast side of the Mala wharf. A launching ramp is between the inner end of the breakwater and a short groin that protects the ramp on its north side.

(412) Lahaina Light (20°52'20"N., 156°40'43"W.), 44 feet above the water, is shown from a 39-foot white pyramidal concrete tower at the inner end of the Lahaina small-boat wharf.

(413) South of Lahaina wharf is a boat basin, about 200 by 800 feet, protected by breakwaters. The approach to the basin is marked by a lighted buoy. The entrance channel is marked by lighted buoys and a 044° lighted range. Vessels entering or leaving the boat basin should exercise caution as the combined effects of the swell and the 90° turn into the basin can set vessels onto the shoal opposite the basin entrance.

(414) Gasoline and diesel fuel are available at Lahaina, but must be obtained through the harbormaster (VHF-FM channel 68 or 808–662–4060). Some small-craft supplies may be obtained at Lahaina and a 1-ton hoist is available on the small-boat wharf.

(415) Good anchorage can be had off Lahaina. Calm water will generally be found even though strong trade winds are blowing elsewhere, however, the anchorage is exposed in kona weather. In approaching the anchorage, vessels should keep about one mile offshore until the light bears 056° then head in on this course and anchor in depths of 9 to 15 fathoms. Anchorage can be had anywhere in the bight north of Mala wharf, 0.6 mile offshore in depths of about 12 fathoms, sandy bottom. Offshore mooring buoys for up to 72 hours are available by permit only.

(416) Lahaina has become a destination for both foreign and domestic cruise ships. From fall to spring, passenger and crew counts in excess of 300 can be expected. Ships anchor out and ferry passengers into the harbor by small boat. When ships are present, a 300-yard security zone exists around the ship. For foreign vessels, a customs station is set up at the harbor. The Harbor Master acts as a VTS for the duration of the cruise ship port call. All traffic must check in and out of the harbor on VHF-FM channel 68.

(417) 
 Currents
(418) The current off Lahaina usually sets north and reaches a maximum velocity of 1 or 2 knots before low water. Before high water the current is normally quite weak and may set either north or south.

(419) It is reported that the current near the wharf at Mala sets south most of the time.

(420) The coast between Mala and Keka‘a Point consists of a low, sandy beach with a fringe of coconut and algaroba trees, back of which the canefields extend inland for about 2 miles. Buildings can be seen along the coast among the trees.

(421) Puu Laina 1.2 miles northeast of Mala, is a prominent cone 650 feet high. The lower slopes of the hill are covered with cane.

(422) Hanakaoo Point 2 miles north of Mala, is rounding and not conspicuous from offshore. The 10-fathom curve is about 500 yards off this point, and the bottom slopes gradually to the sandy beach. Several hotels line the shore north and south of the point.

(423) 
 Chart 19347

(424) Keka‘a Point (20°55.8'N., 156°42.0'W.), 26 miles northwest of Cape Hanamanioa, is the westernmost extremity of Maui and is known locally as Black Point. The point is a dark, rocky promontory, 85 feet high, which appears detached from a distance; there are no offshore dangers. A hotel is on the point.

(425) A northward current is reported off Keka‘a Point. A tidal current of 0.5 knot, setting north and south, was observed 0.5 mile from the shore.

(426) From Keka‘a Point to Lipoa Point, the coast consists of low bluffs and stretches of sand beach along which may be seen clumps of algaroba trees and several resort hotel complexes. The gently sloping country is cut by shallow gulches and is covered with cane and pineapple which extend well up the mountain slopes.

(427) Napili Bay 4.5 miles north of Keka‘a Point, is a small bight between two coral reefs. Anchorage can be found about 0.5 mile offshore in depths of 5 fathoms, but it is seldom used. North currents are reported off the bay. Small boats can land in Napili Bay during tradewind weather. Breakers extend 0.2 mile offshore for a distance of 1.5 miles south of the bay.

(428) Hawea Point Light (21°00'14"N., 156°39'59"W.), 75 feet above the water, is shown from a post with a diamond-shaped black and white dayboard 5 miles north of Keka‘a Point.

(429) Honolua Bay is the open bight on the south side of Lipoa Point which is 7 miles northeast of Keka‘a Point. Smaller vessels can find fair anchorage in the bay, and boats can land in the cove at the northeast end.

(430) In the vicinity of Lipoa Point, the bluffs along the north shore of Maui become higher and more precipitous. Also, the bluffs are cut up by more bights and headlands. The country is more rolling and is cut by deeper gulches. The mountains are steeper and greener. Near their tops the mountains are wooded in places. Patches of black rocks, awash at high water, are found close inshore off several of the points in the vicinity. Vessels should give this coast a berth of at least 0.8 mile.

(431) Kanounou Point about 2 miles east-northeast of Lipoa Point, has several bare, black rocks a short distance offshore.

(432) Honokohau on the west side of Kanounou Point, consists of a few houses at the mouth of Honokohau Stream. There is little protection off the village.

(433) Nakalele Point is three miles east-northeast of Lipoa Point. Close off Nakalele Point are several bare, black rocks; blowholes can be seen along the southeast face of the point. Nakalele Point Light (21°01'45"N., 156°35'26"W.), 142 feet above the water, is shown from a 21-foot pile with a black and white diamond-shaped dayboard.

(434) 
 Chart 19342

(435) Kahakuloa Head 3 miles southeast of Nakalele Point, is the seaward end of one of the numerous abrupt capes in this general vicinity. Pu‘u Koa‘e (Sugarloaf) a dark bare, conical mound 634 feet high, is on Kahakuloa Head; this feature is one of the most conspicuous landmarks on the island of Maui. east and close to Pu‘u Koa‘e, on the same ridge, is a low and more rounded dome. Kahakuloa is a small village in Kahakuloa Bay just west of Kahakuloa Head. A spire can be seen in the village. Kahakuloa is the last settlement on the paved road that skirts the west and north shores of Maui. Deep water is found close to the head, although there are numerous breakers and covered rocks just offshore. A rock, covered 4½ feet, in surrounding depths of 15 to 20 fathoms, is 0.4 mile off the head of the cove between Pu‘u Koa‘e and Mokeehia Island.

(436) Mokeehia Island 1.4 miles southeast of Pu‘u Koa‘e, is a large, bare rock 170 feet high, just off the outer end of Hakuhee Point. Caverns can be seen in the faces of the cliffs on both sides of the island.

(437) Puu Olai 0.7 miles inland from Mokeehia Island, is 1,002 feet high.

(438) Hulu Island 95 feet high and close to shore, is 2 miles south of Mokeehia Island. Several rocks are close south of the island.

(439) Waihee Point is 2.6 miles south of Mokeehia Island. Southeast of the point is extensive Waihee Reef and back of the point is deep and precipitous Waihee Valley which is quite prominent.

(440) Iao Valley also deep and precipitous, is 6 miles south of Mokeehia Island; some of the finest scenery on Maui is found in this vicinity.

(441) Wailuku at the mouth of Iao Valley and 1.5 miles from the coast, is the seat of Maui County and is the largest town on the island. The town has a hospital, hotels, and numerous stores; a white multistory building in the center of the town is prominent. There is a direct highway to Kahului.

(442) Kahului Harbor on the south side of Kahului Bay 6 miles southeast of Mokeehia Island, is protected by breakwaters which extend outward from the west and east shores. On the southeast side of the harbor is the commercial deepwater port of Kahului.

(443) 
 Prominent features
(444) Pauwela Point Light (20°56'44"N., 156°19'17"W.), 161 feet above the water, is shown from a 40-foot white post 9 miles east-northeast of Kahului Harbor and is the principal mark for the approach. Other marks are an aero light at the airport east of Kahului, the breakwater lights, the lighted entrance range, the powerplant stacks east of the piers, the radio tower 0.8 mile west of the rear range, and the Wailuku spire and stack 2 miles west of the harbor.

(445) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(446) The lines established for Kahului Harbor are described in 33 CFR 80.1460 chapter 2.

(447) 
 Channels
(448) From deep water on the north, the channel leads between the breakwaters, then turns sharply southeast to the Kahului piers. A Federal project provides for an entrance channel 35 feet deep and a harbor basin of the same depth. Channel and basin are maintained at or near project depth. Navigational aids include lighted and unlighted buoys, breakwater lights, and a 176.8° lighted range. A channel, marked by private buoys, leads to a boat ramp at the west end of the harbor.

(449) 
 Anchorages
(450) Swinging room inside the breakwaters is too restricted for large vessels, which may anchor east of the sea buoy, but caution is necessary to avoid dragging by the prevailing northeast trades. Small craft have plenty of anchorage room in the unimproved areas behind the breakwaters.

(451) 
 Dangers
(452) Waihee Reef northwest of the breakwaters, and Spartan Reef northeast of the breakwaters, extend 0.7 mile and 1.2 miles offshore, respectively. Vessels approaching the harbor entrance range from either direction should avoid the reefs. The west part of the inner harbor is shallow. There is a buildup of silt and marine debris (old tires) that creates a shallow area in the southeast corner of the commercial harbor in about 20°53'44"N., 156°27'56"W.

(453) 
 Regulated navigation area
(454) A safety zone is in Kahului Harbor. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40 and 165.14-1414 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(455) 
 Currents
(456) Harbor currents are weak.

(457) 
 Weather
(458) The prevailing winds are the northeast trades.

(459) Pilotage, Kahului
(460) Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign vessels and for U.S. vessels under register in the foreign trade; it is optional for U.S. vessels in the coastwise trade with a Federal licensed pilot on board. Pilotage is available through the Hawaii Pilots Association. Mariners are requested to give 24 hours advance notice of arrival, gross tonnage, length, and draft of vessel by telephone (808–537–4169) or by e-mail at dispatch@hawaiipilots.net. The 31-foot long pilot boat PAUWELA has a black hull with yellow superstructure and displays the word ‘PILOT’ in large white letters on the sides of the cabin. The pilot boat displays the International Code Flag ‘H’ by day and shows the standard pilot lights at night, white over red. The pilot boat monitors VHF-FM channels 12 and 16 and can be reached by “KAHULUI PILOTS”. Additionally, vessels are requested to rig a pilot ladder 1 meter above the water on the leeward side. The pilot boarding area is 2.2 miles north of the harbor entrance. The rough weather boarding area for Kahului is at Lahaina, 1 mile southwest of the sea buoy.

(461) 
 Towage
(462) A 3,400 hp tug and a 4,400 hp assist tug are available at the port.

(463) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration, and agricultural quarantine
(464) (See chapter 3, Vessel Arrival Inspections, and Appendix A for addresses.)

(465) Quarantine is enforced in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service. (See Public Health Service, chapter 1.) There is a public hospital between Kahului and Wailuku.

(466) Kahului is a customs port of entry.

(467) 
 Harbor regulations
(468) These are established by the Harbor Division of the Hawaii Department of Transportation. The harbormaster enforces the regulations and assigns berths and anchorages. The harbormasters’ office hours are from 0745-1630 and can be contacted at 808–873–3350; 808–357–0665 (after-hours) and (emergency only).


(470) 
 Wharves
(471) The State-owned and operated piers are on the southeast side of the harbor. General cargo is usually handled by ships’ tackle, and cargo to and from barges by forklift trucks; crawler and truck cranes are available. Transit sheds with 78,000 square feet of covered storage space and 21 acres of open storage space are available at the piers; truck lines serve the piers.

(472) Pier 1: 1,350 feet of berthing space along the southwest side; 35 feet reported alongside; deck height, 9 feet; two traveling bulk sugar loading towers with conveyors and loading spouts, loading rate 800 tons per hour; receipt and shipment of general and containerized cargo; receipt of automobiles; receipt of petroleum products, coal, lumber, and steel products; shipment of raw sugar and molasses; boarding passengers.

(473) Pier 2: 894 feet of berthing space along the northeast side, 19 to 24 feet reported alongside; deck height, 9½ feet; 288 feet of berthing space along the outer end, 24 feet reported alongside; receipt and shipment of conventional and containerized cargo and automobiles; receipt of lumber, bulk cement, and liquefield petroleum gases.

(474) Pier 3: extends northeast from the foot of Pier 2; 500 feet of berthing space along northwest side, 18 feet reported alongside; deck height, 9 feet; receipt and shipment of general and containerized cargo and automobiles; receipt of petroleum products, sand, lumber, and steel products; boarding passengers; mooring towboats.

(475) There is a surge at the piers during periods of heavy north swells; this occurs about 10 times a year. Departing vessels may have some difficulties in breasting off from Pier 1 during kona weather.

(476) 
 Supplies
(477) Gasoline, diesel fuel, and water are available at all piers; gasoline and diesel fuel are trucked in. Bunker C fuel can be obtained in limited quantities by truck. Ice and some marine supplies are available.

(478) 
 Repairs
(479) Kahului has no facilities for making repairs or drydocking deep-draft vessels. The nearest such facilities are in Honolulu. There are machine, electrical, and welding concerns off the waterfront for making above-the-waterline repairs to vessels.

(480) 
 Communications
(481) Kahului has regular interisland barge service and is a port of call for transpacific vessels, but interisland passenger travel is almost entirely by air. Telephone communication is available to the other islands and to the mainland.

(482) The coast is low between Kahului Harbor and Pauwela Point. The back country is planted in sugarcane.

(483) Paia is 6 miles east of Kahului Harbor and 1 mile inland. An opening in Spartan Reef off Paia is sometimes used by local craft seeking anchorage behind the reef.

(484) Maliko Bay 8 miles east-northeast of Kahului Harbor, is a narrow opening with steep, rocky sides. The bay provides fair anchorage for small craft in depths of 1½ to 5¼ fathoms, rocky bottom, when the trade winds are blowing. Rocks and foul ground, which extend from the east side of the entrance to the bay to about halfway across, form a natural breakwater. Rocks on the west side of the entrance restrict the channel to a width of about 100 yards. A reef that bares is on the southwest side of the bay about 0.1 mile inside the entrance. Small craft can be launched from a boat ramp at the head of the bay.

(485) Pauwela Point 9 miles east-northeast of Kahului Harbor, is marked by a prominent light which has already been described. An east current is reported off the point.

(486) 
 Chart 19340

(487) Paralleling the northeast coast of Maui is a State highway which is the main link between Kahului and Hāna. From Pauwela east the road is a succession of sharp turns and steep grades as it winds from and toward the shore in crossing the numerous gulches. Sections of the highway can be seen from seaward, but it disappears as it follows the gulches inland.

(488) Between Pauwela and Nāhiku, a distance of about 15 miles, the bluffs reach heights of 300 to 400 feet, then gradually lose elevation to the southeast, and are low in the vicinity of Hāna. The back country is generally green, and the higher slopes are heavily wooded. Because of the heavy rains, waterfalls are numerous in the many gulches that lead to the sea. Very little of this northeast coast is planted in sugarcane. From Pauwela Point to Waipio Bay the land on the seaward side of the coastal highway is under pineapple cultivation, and there are many taro patches at Ke‘anae and Nāhiku. The slopes southeast of Nāhiku are grazing areas for cattle. There are many inshore rocks between Pauwela Point and Hāna, but all such dangers can be avoided by keeping a mile offshore.

(489) Uaoa Bay 3 miles east of Pauwela Point and just east of Opana Point indents the coast about 0.4 mile. Fair anchorage during south winds can be had 0.3 mile offshore in depths of 12 to 16 fathoms, sandy bottom. A large detached rock off Opana Point marks the west side of the bay.

(490) Pilale Bay 4 miles east of Pauwela Point, is a small opening at the mouth of a deep valley. Small boats can find fair anchorage during tradewind weather in depths of 4 to 7 fathoms a short distance off the beach.

(491) Waipio Bay 6 miles east of Pauwela Point, lies between Honokala Point and Huelo Point and is open to the northeast. Huelo is a small village along the highway 0.5 mile inland.

(492) Hoalua Bay 7 miles southeast of Pauwela Point is small and too exposed for anything but emergency anchorage. Under favorable conditions landings can be made at the head of the bay.

(493) Oopuola Cove 8 miles southeast of Pauwela Point, is narrow and steepsided. A reef lies just north of the point on the west side of the entrance. Beach landings can be made at times, and small boats can find anchorage in depths of 3 to 6 fathoms near the center of the cove. Puu Kukai 574 feet high, is 0.5 miles west of the cove.

(494) Keopuka Rock 141 feet high, is 9.5 miles southeast of Pauwela Point and close to shore. The rock’s double-humped top is distinctive from east or west, but from directly offshore it blends into the cliffs behind it.

(495) Honomanu Bay 10 miles southeast of Pauwela Point, is a good landing place and a fair small-boat anchorage during the trades, although the swell is felt in the bay. Anchorage can be found in depths of 2 to 3 fathoms about 200 yards from the black shingle beach at the head of the bay. The east side of the bay is shallow. Puu o Kohola 844 feet high, is 0.5 mile west of the bay.

(496) Nuaailua Bay close east of Honomanu Bay and on the west side of Ke‘anae Point, is the only suitable anchorage for moderate-size vessels along this northeast coast. The bay is somewhat exposed to the northeast trades, but is partly protected by Ke‘anae Point. A 250-foot vessel can anchor in depths of 13 to 15 fathoms in the middle of the main bay; the bottom is quite even and has good holding qualities. Approach from seaward should be made on a due south course, keeping about 0.3 mile off the west shore and well clear of the 15-foot lone, black rock which is 0.3 mile off the east shore.

(497) Ke‘anae Point 11 miles southeast of Pauwela Point, is a low, flat peninsula that juts out 0.3 mile from the bluff line. Landings should not be attempted on the point proper because of the covered rocks and ledges on all sides. A scattering of houses can be seen on the point.

(498) Ke‘anae Valley is the largest and most prominent valley on this part of Maui. The valley leads inland 7 miles from the vicinity of Ke‘anae Point to Ko‘olau Gap, the large opening in the north rim of Haleakalā Crater.

(499) Pauwalu Point is 1 mile southeast of Ke‘anae Point. Mokumana Rock close off Pauwalu Point, is 77 feet high and flat-topped; the rock is particularly outstanding when approached from the east, but from some directions it appears to be a continuation of the point although there is a separation of some 50 yards.

(500) Aluea Rock 2 miles southeast of Ke‘anae Point and about 0.2 mile offshore, is only a few feet high and has the appearance of a reef awash as the seas break over it continuously and covered rocks extend another 300 yards from shore. This area should be avoided by all boats.

(501) Wailua consists of a few houses along the shore of the small bight immediately southwest of Aluea Rock. On the east side of the bight is a high wooded bluff, and the west side is low and grass-covered. The highway leading to Hāna leaves the shore west of the bight and from seaward it may be seen high up on the ridges as it winds its way southeast.

(502) Nāhiku 15 miles southeast of Pauwela Point, is a small settlement on the east side of an open bight. Anchorage can be found in depths of 7 fathoms close to shore, but strangers should not attempt it because of the two covered rocks near shore. A southeast current is reported off Nāhiku, and the inshore current between Nāhiku and Ka‘uiki Head is said to be weak. Kūhiwa Gulch extends inland from the vicinity of Nāhiku and is visible from seaward.

(503) Opikoula Point is a low, rocky bluff on the east side of the Nāhiku anchorage. Similar bluffs extend 5 miles southeast to Pukaulua Point, and there are no easily recognized landmarks. This reef-fringed stretch of coast is not recommended for small-boat landings.

(504) Low Pukaulua Point is 2.5 miles north-northwest of Hāna Bay and Ka‘uiki Head. Hana Airport is 0.5 mile northwest of the point; the main runway is laid out in an east-west direction and is close to the bluffs.

(505) 
 Chart 19347

(506) ‘Alalākeiki Channel between Maui and Kaho‘olawe, is about 6 miles wide. The channel is clear of dangers, with the exception of Molokini, which is marked by a light.

(507) Observations show that the current usually flows northwest with a maximum velocity of 0.7 knot on the west side of the channel near Kaho‘olawe Island, and south-southeast with a maximum velocity of 0.4 knot along the east side of the channel near Maui Island. Velocities up to 1 knot have been observed in the channel.

(508) The trade winds draw through the channel, hauling around the north end of Kaho‘olawe. The trades blow with much force at the east entrance to the channel, but in the vicinity of Molokini it is generally calm.

(509) Auau Channel between Maui and Lāna‘i, is about 8 miles wide. With the exception of a reef about 3 miles long, which extends not more than 0.5 mile offshore north of Kikoa Point, Lāna‘i, the channel is free from obstructions. The aerolight at Moloka‘i airport can be seen when passing through Auau Channel.

(510) Observations in Auau Channel show that the current seldom floods, but that the flow is mainly in the ebb direction; ebb is east with a velocity of 1.1 knots. Beginning with maximum ebb, the current decreases to a minimum ebb or slack and then increases to a maximum ebb without a significant flow in the flood direction. Maximum velocities of 2 knots have been observed. (For predictions see the Tidal Current Tables.) During trade winds it is often calm in the channel.

(511) Pailolo Channel between Maui and Moloka‘i, is about 7.5 miles wide. The channel is clear of obstructions with the exception of Mokuho‘oniki and Kanahā Rock, near the east end of Moloka‘i, and a reef about 0.8 mile wide which fringes the shore of Moloka‘i.

(512) Observations show the current in the channel to set northeast with a velocity of about 0.3 knot. The maximum velocity observed was 0.6 knot.

(513) In navigating this channel, the tanks on Moloka‘i and Maui will prove useful landmarks; those on Moloka‘i are on the southeast shore, near Pūko‘o, and those on Maui are on its west-northwest side, near Keka‘a Point.

(514) It is reported that the junction of Pailolo, Auau, and Kalohi Channels, locally known as The Slot is subject to high winds and dangerous currents.

(515) Kaho‘olawe 6 miles southwest across ‘Alalākeiki Channel from the southwest extremity of Maui, has an area of 45 square statute miles and is the smallest of the eight major islands. Kaho‘olawe is about 10 miles long and 6 miles wide, and from a distance has an even, unbroken appearance. The high cliffs on the east and south sides are grayish-black; the soil of the mountain tops and the gentle slopes of the north and west sides are reddish. The island has scarcely any rainfall, and the huge clouds of red dust which trail to leeward during strong winds can be seen for many miles. Pu‘u ‘O Moa‘ula lki a brown dome 1,444 feet high near the east end of the island, is the most prominent landmark.

(516) 
 Warning
(517) Kaho‘olawe is under Naval jurisdiction. The island was previously used as a military target area for bombing and gunnery training. Large amounts of unexploded ordnance are present on the island and in its adjacent waters. Entry onto the island or in its adjacent waters is prohibited without the consent of Commander, Third Fleet, Pearl Harbor, HI 96860. Entry regulations are contained in 32 CFR 763.1 through 763.6 (not carried in this Coast Pilot). A danger zone extends 2 miles from all sides of the island. (See 33 CFR 334.1340 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(518) From Lae ‘O Kuikui the most north point of the island, to Kanapou Bay, the coast is rocky and the bluffs gradually increase to cliffs several hundred feet high at the bay.

(519) Lae ‘O Kaule 2.8 miles southeast of Lae ‘O Kuikui, is on the north side of Kanapou Bay.

(520) Kanapou Bay 2 miles wide between Lae ‘O Kaule and Lae ‘O Hālona offers protection in kona weather. Anchorage is available for small vessels in Keoneuli (Beck Cove) on the southwest side of the bay. The bay should be entered on a southwest course, heading for the middle of the cove, and anchorage should be made in depths of 15 to 20 fathoms off the mouth of the cove and midway between the sides. The bottom shoals rapidly from depths of 12 to 3 fathoms about 0.2 mile from the sandy beach at the head of the cove. West winds draw down the canyon at the head of the cove with considerable force.

(521) From Lae ‘O Kākā the southeast point of Kaho‘olawe, to within 1 mile of Honokanai‘a on the southwest side, the coast consists of sheer cliffs which reach a maximum height of 800 feet at Kamōhio Bay. There are no offlying dangers except Pu‘u Koa‘e.

(522) Kamōhio Bay and Waikahalulu Bay 3 and 6 miles west of Lae ‘O Kākā respectively, each indent the coast about 0.7 mile. Neither bay can be recommended as an anchorage because of the deep water close to the shores. The bays are subject to strong gusts of wind that sweep down over the high cliffs when the trades are blowing. On the west side of Kamōhio Bay is Pu‘u Koa‘e a black mass of rocks 378 feet high and about 100 yards offshore.

(523) The prevailing current along the south coast of Kaho‘olawe is west.

(524) Honokanai‘a is 1 mile southeast of Lae ‘O Kealaikahiki the westernmost point of the island. The cove is the best anchorage on the island except during west or south weather. Anchorage can be had in depths of 10 to 12 fathoms 0.5 mile off the sand beach. The prevailing current at the anchorage is northwest. The best landing is on the sand beach close to the conspicuous black rock at the head of the cove. The shore is low and has alternate stretches of sand and rocks. A stream, which is usually dry, and a clump of algaroba trees may be seen. As many as five buildings may be seen on the shore above the beach.

(525) Kuia Shoal with a least depth of 1 fathom, extends 0.7 mile west from Lae ‘O Kealaikahiki. A shoal with a least depth of 3 fathoms is about 0.5 mile southwest of Kuia Shoal. Vessels should give the point a berth of at least 1.5 miles. The country slopes up evenly from Lae ‘O Kealaikahiki to the east.

(526) The northwest coast is rocky and has a line of low bluffs from which the country slopes gently up to the reddish hills in the center of the island. There are scarcely any distinguishing marks and no off-lying dangers.

(527) Kuheeia Bay (Kuheia Bay) 2 miles southwest of Lae ‘O Kuikui, is a very small bight where boats can land at times.

(528) Kealaikahiki Channel between Kaho‘olawe and Lāna‘i, is about 15 miles wide. The channel is free from obstructions. Currents in the channel are weak and variable and are influenced by the wind. A maximum velocity of 0.5 knot in a general northeast direction was observed in 1962. Sailing craft should avoid this channel during trade winds, as long periods of calms sometimes occur south and west of Kaho‘olawe and Lāna‘i.

(529) 
 Chart 19340

(530) Lāna‘i 8 miles west across Auau Channel from Maui and the same distance south across Kalohi Channel from Moloka‘i, has an area of 141 square statute miles and ranks sixth in size of the eight major islands. Lāna‘i is about 15 miles long in a northwest direction and about 10 miles wide near its south end, gradually narrowing toward its northwest end. The highest point on Lāna‘i is Lāna‘ihale 3,370 feet high and 3.5 miles inland from the southeast side of the island. The slopes on the east side of the mountain are steep and cut by gulches; those on the west side are more gradual, terminating in a rolling plain between the 1,000- and 2,000-foot levels. There is little rainfall and, in general, the island has a barren appearance. The local economy is driven mostly by tourism, although some livestock is raised. Lāna‘i City the only large community, is in the center of the island.

(531) 
 Chart 19347

(532) The coast is low, sandy, and brush-covered from Kikoa Point the easternmost point of Lāna‘i, to Kamaiki Point 3.1 miles south-southwest. A coral reef and shoal water fringe the shore from 200 to 400 yards off the beach. Low bluffs appear to Kamaiki Point, gradually increasing in height until close to Manele Bay, where they reach a maximum of about 400 feet.

(533) Manele Bay is a small indentation in the south coast of Lāna‘i, 3 miles southwest of Kaimaiki Point; a lighted buoy is off the entrance. A low rock, over which the sea usually breaks, is 300 yards seaward from the entrance point on the east side of Manele Bay. Small local vessels have anchored in depths of 14 fathoms about 350 yards southwest of the rock.

(534) Manele Small-Boat Harbor protected by a breakwater on the south side, is in the northwest corner of the bay; a light marks the end of the breakwater. A dredged channel marked by private buoys, leads from Manele Bay north of the breakwater thence southwest to a mooring basin. When entering the harbor, local conditions dictate staying well to the right side of the entrance channel. The prevailing winds blow from the east and there are numerous coral heads near the left edge of the channel, just off the end of the breakwater. In 1981, a rock covered 3 feet and marked by a buoy, was reported about 30 yards northwest of the breakwater light in about 20°44'34"N., 156°53'13"W. A fishing pier and launching ramp are at the head of the harbor.

(535) Puupehe Island (Puupehe Rock) locally known as Sweetheart Rock, is 0.5 mile southwest of Manele Bay. The island is 110 feet high, brown on its steep sides, flat and grass-covered on its top. It is separated from the shore by a short, low sandspit. The island is the most prominent landmark along this section of the coast. Rocks, over which the sea usually breaks, extend 300 yards east and south from Puupehe. Hulopoe Bay just west of the island has a sandy beach and a prominent large hotel complex at its head. Squalls are less pronounced in Hulopoe Bay than in Manele Bay.

(536) Hulopoe Bay is within the boundary of Manele-Hulopoe Marine Life Conservation District. State regulations forbid operating, mooring, or anchoring any power-driven vessel within Hulopoe Bay. A copy of the regulations can be obtained from the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 621, Honolulu, HI 96809.

(537) From Manele Bay to Palaoa Point, the coast consists of low bluffs, behind which the land rises in steep slopes to the tableland above. It is reported that the currents are weak along the south coast of Lāna‘i. A high, detached, grass-covered rock is close to the shore 1.8 miles west of Puupehe. Many small rocks are close to the shore; one, awash at times, is 400 yards offshore and about 2 miles east of Palaoa Point.

(538) Palaoa Point Light (20°43'56"N., 156°57'53"W.), 91 feet above the water, is shown from a white skeleton tower on the east prong of a double point at the southwest extremity of Lāna‘i. A small bight, with a rocky shore on which small boats can usually land during trade-wind weather, is between the double points. A large rock, known locally as Shark Fin Rock, is about 0.3 mile north-northwest of the point in about 20°44'15"N., 156°58'08"W.

(539) Beyond Palaoa Point, the coast has a north-northwest trend. Between the point and Kaumalapau Harbor, the sheer coastal bluffs of Kaholo Pali are more than 1,000 feet high in some places. The bluffs are marked by two landslides; one about 1.5 miles north of Palaoa Point, consists of dark material and is very large and conspicuous; the other, about 1.8 miles north of the point, has a gravelly appearance and is covered with vegetation.

(540) Puu Ulaula 1,271 feet high, is 2 miles north of Palaoa Point and a mile inland from Kaholo Pali. There is an air-navigation installation on the summit.

(541) 
 Chart 19351

(542) Kaumalapau Harbor 3.5 miles north of Palaoa Point, is the best harbor on Lāna‘i in all but west and kona weather. The harbor is a small bight at the mouth of the most prominent gulch in the vicinity. A shoal area, marked by unlighted buoys at the outer extremity, extends along the south and east sides of the harbor. Many local fishing craft moor to unlighted mooring buoys in the harbor.

(543) A safety zone is in Kaumalapau Harbor. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40 and 165.14-1414 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(544) Kaumalapau is a commercial barge landing on the north side of the harbor.

(545) Kaumalapau Light (20°46'59"N., 156°59'30"W.), 68 feet above the water, is shown from a post with a black and white diamond-shaped dayboard on the south side of the harbor entrance. Oil tanks are prominent on the high ground back of the wharf. A private aerolight is about 2.3 miles east of the harbor.

(546) A 250-foot breakwater with a distinctive white appearance is on the north side of the entrance, is about 50 yards west-southwest of the outer end of the breakwater. There is no entrance channel but a 600-foot opening leads to a turning basin which is 30 to 50 feet deep and about 500 feet by 800 feet. The wharf provides cargo sheds and about 400 feet of berthing space. The facilities also include two 35-ton and one 30-ton cranes, bulk-handling and storage for petroleum products. A barge makes weekly (Wednesday) calls on the harbor, at which time the harbor becomes a security zone. If a fuel barge is present, there is no admittance.

(547) Gasoline, diesel fuel, and water can be obtained on the Kaumalapau wharf. Small craft up to 40 feet can be handled by a derrick to the deck of the wharf, and small machine repairs can be made at a nearby shop.

(548) Between Kaumalapau Harbor and Ka‘ena Point, the coast is a series of bluffs, in some places precipitous and 300 to 400 feet high. The shore is rocky, with a few short stretches of sand. In general, the bottom is fairly steep-to, but small vessels can find anchorage with sufficient swinging room in some places. At times, when the trades are blowing, the wind sweeps down the gulches in heavy gusts which are felt for a mile or more offshore. There are no houses or trees of any size along this coast, which has a barren appearance.

(549) Nanahoa (Five Needles) about 2.3 miles north of Kaumalapau Harbor and near the middle of the west side of the island, are a group of detached pinnacle rocks. The outermost rock is about 300 yards offshore and 32 feet high, and the inner pinnacle is 120 feet high. The rocks are of the same material as the higher cliffs of the shore and are therefore not easily recognized from offshore. Good anchorage for small-craft can be had in the vicinity.

(550) Keanapapa Point 7.5 miles northwest of Kaumalapau Harbor, is the westernmost point of Lāna‘i. The point is low and rocky and is marked by a small knoll 150 yards inland from the shore. A small detached rock, 8 feet high and 150 yards offshore, is 1.9 miles southeast of Keanapapa Point. The cliffs, which are 200 feet high in the vicinity of this rock, gradually diminish in height until they are only 20 or 30 feet high 0.5 mile south of Keanapapa Point.

(551) Ka‘ena Point 1 mile north of Keanapapa Point, is low and rocky and is hard to distinguish from the other points in the vicinity. The low, rounding, unlighted, northwest coast of Lāna‘i is not easily seen at night, and vessels should give it a berth of at least 1 mile, although 0.5 mile will clear all dangers. There are many small, rocky points and short, sandy indentations in this vicinity, and boats can land in the lee of the points at times.

(552) About 1.5 miles east-northeast of Ka‘ena Point is a 1-mile-long stretch of sand beach, with no fringing reef, that provides easy landing for small boats. East of this beach the coral reef fringes the north and east sides of Lāna‘i to a width of as much as 0.3 mile. In general, the beach is backed by a low, narrow strip of land that rises gently to the tableland. Vegetation consists of cactus, low brush, and a few small trees.

(553) 
 Chart 19347

(554) Pohakuloa Point marked by a light, 4 miles east-northeast of Ka‘ena Point, is so low and rounding that it is difficult to recognize as the north extremity of Lāna‘i. A 150-yard opening in the reef 0.4 mile east of the point affords small-boat access to the sand beach. Two wrecks on the reef that fringes the north coast are very prominent. One wreck is 0.7 mile west of Pohakuloa Point; the other wreck is 4.4 miles east of the point.

(555) Maunalei Gulch 6 miles east of Pohakuloa Point, is forked and should not be confused with deep Hauola Gulch 2 miles farther to the southeast. A hard-surface highway leads from Lāna‘i City to the mouth of Maunalei Gulch; a group of beach houses, probably Kahokunui is 0.8 mile northwest of the gulch.

(556) Keomuku 10 miles southeast of Pohakuloa Point, is an abandoned village in an extensive coconut grove. There is a shallow opening in the reef off the village, and boats of less than 4-foot draft find anchorage behind and south of the entrance.

(557) The northeast coast of Lāna‘i should be given a berth of at least 0.8 mile. Prevailing east winds tend to set vessels to the west. Current information for this coast is included in the discussion of Auau Channel.

(558) Kalohi Channel 8 miles wide between Lāna‘i and Moloka‘i, is free of dangers except for the marginal reefs around the two islands.

(559) 
 Currents
(560) Observations made in Kalohi Channel show reversing currents with average maximum velocities of 0.5 knot. The flood sets northeast, and the ebb sets southwest. (See Tidal Current Tables for predictions.)

(561) 
 Chart 19340

(562) Moloka‘i 7.5 miles northwest across Pailolo Channel from Maui and 8 miles north across Kalohi Channel from Lāna‘i, has an area of 259 square statute miles and ranks fifth in size of the eight major islands. More or less rectangular in shape, Moloka‘i is about 34 miles long in a west direction and about 7 miles wide. The east end is mountainous; its summit is Kamakou 4,970 feet high. On the north side, the mountain slopes are very steep, in many places almost perpendicular, and numerous deep gorges with precipitous sides can be seen. On the south side, the slopes are gradual, cut by gorges, and terminate in a narrow strip of rolling land near the coast. On the west side, the land slopes gently and is cut by gulches; here and there the crater of an extinct volcano can be seen. About 10 miles from the west end of the island the plain is only a few hundred feet high and is marked here and there by prominent blowholes. The entire west end of the island is a bare table land cut by small gulches and rising gradually to Mauna Loa 1,400 feet high. From seaward this part of the island presents a smooth and rolling appearance.

(563) The island’s rural economy includes tourism, cattle ranching, irrigated fruit and vegetable farming, and coffee.

(564) 
 Anchorage
(565) Depths along the south and west coasts of Moloka‘i are such that vessels may anchor at will, having due regard for the abrupt shoaling inside the 10-fathom curve. The bottom is mostly coral and sand. The east end of the island is exposed to the northeast trades, and the north coast is exposed and offers very little protection. The only traffic along the north coast is the twice-yearly supply barge that calls on Kalaupapa, a community of Hansen’s Disease patients. Kamalō Harbor and the boat lagoon in Puko‘o Harbor are the only harbors on the south side of the island considered safe during kona storms. Local knowledge is advised when entering Puko‘o Harbor.

(566) 
 Currents
(567) Current observations have been made at several places along the south shore of Moloka‘i between Kamalō and Lā‘au Point. They indicate, in general, an east flow along the shore in the vicinities of Kaunakakai and Kamalō and a west flow near Lā‘au Point. Combined with these movements are tidal currents which usually reach an east maximum velocity about the time of low water at Honolulu and a west maximum about the time of high water. The west flow near Lā‘au Point is reported to turn sharply north at the point, and vessels should guard against a set toward the point. Currents are said to set west along the entire north coast of Moloka‘i and northeast along the east coast. (For further current information covering waters adjacent to Moloka‘i, see the discussions of Pailolo, Kalohi, and Kaiwi Channels.)

(568) Weather, Moloka‘i
(569) The trade winds divide at Cape Hālawa; one part follows the north shore and another part follows the south shore. Because of the topography of the island the trade wind is frequently a little south of east along the south coast of Moloka‘i. The wind is usually light in the early morning, but blows with considerable strength in the middle of the day. During strong trades, dust clouds appear over the west end of the island. Very heavy rainfall is found on the northeast side of the island; the south and west sides have very little rainfall.

(570) 
 Supplies
(571) Provisions and some marine supplies are available at Kaunakakai. Gasoline and diesel fuel can be delivered by truck to the Kaunakakai pier. There are no other sources of provisions on Moloka‘i. The harbor agent may be contacted at 808–553–1742.

(572) 
 Communications
(573) The island has telephone communication with the other islands and with the mainland. Good roads extend from Kaunakakai, on the south coast, to Moloka‘i Airport, in the west central part of the island, and to Kamalō and other small towns. Interisland air and barge service are available.

(574) From Cape Hālawa, the east part of the island, to Kamalō a distance of about 12 miles, the coast has a general southwest trend; thence to Lā‘au Point, a distance of about 25 miles, the trend is west. A reef about 1 mile wide fringes almost the entire coast, the widest part being in the bight about 13 miles east of Lā‘au Point. During the day the limits of the reef can generally be determined by the breakers, but, at night, vessels are cautioned to give this coast a good berth.

(575) 
 Chart 19347

(576) Cape Hālawa the east point of Moloka‘i, is a brown cliff about 300 feet high. Breakers extend about 300 yards off the point and a rock, which bares at times, is 250 yards offshore. During the heavy east sea, it is apt to be quite choppy off this point and vessels should give the cape a berth of about 1.5 miles.

(577) Cape Halawa Light (21°09'33"N., 156°42'45"W.), 321 feet above the water, is shown from a steel pole with a concrete base.

(578) Koali‘i 1 mile west of the cape, is a hill 794 feet high. In general, the coast between Cape Hālawa and Kaunakakai Harbor is low, but rises, first gently, then rapidly, to high, rugged mountains that are cut by many gulches.

(579) Mokuho‘oniki a small, yellow, bare, rocky islet, 198 feet high and with almost perpendicular sides, is 0.9 mile offshore and 1.6 miles south of Cape Hālawa. Kanahā Rock 95 feet high, is about 50 yards southwest of Mokuho‘oniki. Midway between the rocks and Moloka‘i are depths of about 15 fathoms. The two islets together are locally known as Turtle Rock.

(580) Honouliwai 3.5 miles southwest of Cape Hālawa, is a small indentation in the coast and offers small boats a little protection from the trades. It should be entered only with local knowledge. About 0.3 mile northeast of Honouliwai is Honoulimaloo a small bight in the coast. The coral reef trends farther offshore from Honouliwai southwest.

(581) Waialua 4.6 miles southwest of Cape Hālawa, consists of a few houses at the mouth of a gulch.

(582) Pauwalu Harbor 5 miles southwest of Cape Hālawa, is a double opening in the reef. The west opening is about 200 yards wide and is usually marked by breakers on either side. Within the entrance is a small pocket with depths of about 2 fathoms, where a few local vessels find some shelter. A house and tank near the beach are partly hidden by trees. The reef extends 0.6 mile offshore, and the 10-fathom curve is about 0.7 mile offshore.

(583) About a mile southwest of Pauwalu Harbor is another opening in the reef near Kainalu.

(584) 
 Chart 19353

(585) Pūko‘o Harbor 7.4 miles southwest of Cape Hālawa is a pocket in the reef some 800 yards long and 250 yards wide. The entrance is through a break in the reef from the southeast. A privately dredged channel continues from the harbor to a three-fingered boat lagoon called Pukoo Lagoon. The entrance to the lagoon is a 60-yard opening through a rock seawall. A depth of 12 feet can be carried across the harbor entrance to the lagoon channel. The lagoon channel has a depth of 6 feet with a depth of 4 feet inside. The lagoon offers excellent protection to small craft in all weather. The outer harbor is smooth during the trades, although the wind sweeps across it with full force. The passage through the reef is marked on either side by breakers. During kona storms, breakers extend across the passage. Boats entering the harbor should start their approach midway between the breakers and steer for the opening in the seawall of the boat lagoon. Caution should be exercised as there are no navigation aids, and numerous coral heads and submerged rocks are on both sides of the channel; local knowledge is advised. The village of Pūko‘o consists of a few houses on the lowland near the beach in front of a steep-sided gorge that extends well back into the mountain. The reef at Pūko‘o extends 0.6 mile offshore.

(586) 
 Chart 19347

(587) There are many old fishponds in the vicinity of Pūko‘o and along the coast for 10 miles west. About 1 mile west of Pūko‘o is the village of Kalua‘aha.

(588) Kalaeloa Harbor 3.2 miles west of Pūko‘o Harbor, is the largest and best protected harbor along the coast, but its use is limited by the bar across the entrance, which is an unmarked opening in the reef.

(589) 
 Chart 19353

(590) Kamalō Harbor 5 miles southwest of Pūko‘o Harbor, is the east of two pockets opening south in the reef at the most south point on Moloka‘i. The harbor, excluding the entrance, is about 150 yards wide, and extends more than 0.5 mile into the reef. The entrance to the harbor is through a break in an outer reef. The outer reef has general depths of 1 to 6 feet and the entrance through the break has a least depth of 11 feet. A lighted buoy is off the entrance. The coral reef marking the limits of deep water within the harbor usually are easily seen by day. The village of Kamalō consists of a few houses at the mouth of a gulch back of the harbor. The ruins of an old wharf are at the head of the harbor and an A-frame house is visible from seaward.

(591) Kamalō Harbor offers good protection from west to north winds. The soft gray mud bottom has good holding quality. The harbor is used by small boats, but seldom by larger vessels. The swell is not felt within the harbor. Current observations a mile off Kamalō show velocities of about 1 knot. Water, fuel, and supplies are available in the village.

(592) 
 Chart 19351

(593) Pu‘upāpa‘ 830 feet high, is 2 miles northwest of Kamalō Harbor and 0.6 mile inland. Kamalō Gulch is 1 mile east of the hill and 2.5 miles west of the hill is Kawela Gulch which extends well inland from the small village of Kawela.

(594) From Kamalō Harbor the coast has a west trend and the reef extends as much as 1 mile from shore.

(595) 
 Chart 19353

(596) Kaunakakai Harbor 9 miles west of Kamalō Harbor and 16 miles from the west extremity of Moloka‘i, is a commercial barge harbor in the reef off Kaunakakai. The harbor is about 600 feet wide by 1,500 feet long and is open to the south. The approach to the basin is marked by lighted and unlighted buoys.

(597) A safety zone is in Kaunakakai Harbor, off the west face of the State pier. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40 and 165.14-1414 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(598) The State-owned wharf, lit by floodlights at night, provides a cargo shed and 500 feet of berthing space. A 700-yard-long mole extends northeast from wharf to shore. The mole protects small craft from the trade winds. Barges can lie at the wharf except during the two or three severe kona storms of the winter season. Kamalō Harbor offers better protection for small craft during the konas. When barges are present, the wharf is a secure area and proper identification is required for access. Water is piped to the wharf; gasoline and diesel fuel can be delivered by tank truck. Some marine supplies may be obtained in Kaunakakai.

(599) A boat ramp and mooring area for small craft are just off the north end of the wharf. A channel, marked by private buoys, leads to a small-boat harbor off the southeast side of the wharf. The southeast side of the channel and east side of the harbor are extremely shoal; caution is advised. The harbor is protected on its east side by a detached breakwater. There are 29 slips that are reserved for regular occupancy; no visitor slips are available.

(600) The coastal reef extends more than a mile from shore on both sides of the Kaunakakai entrance. Vessels can anchor temporarily in depths of about 15 fathoms off the entrance, but there is little shelter from the northeast trades or the konas.

(601) Current observations a mile off Kaunakakai indicate an east set most of the time. Maximum velocities observed were 1 knot east and 0.5 knot west. East and west maximums occur at about the times of low water and high water, respectively, at Honolulu.

(602) 
 Chart 19351

(603) For 3 miles west from Kaunakakai the lowlands extend much farther inland than along any other section of the coast. The reef extends more than a mile from shore and is mostly covered 1 to 3 feet, but has many coral heads that bare at low water. The country between Kaunakakai and Kolo is bare and rocky and is cut by numerous small gulches. The sandy beach is fringed with algaroba trees.

(604) The aerolight of Moloka‘i Airport and the aero obstruction lights on the surrounding hills are visible off the south shore of the island.

(605) 
 Chart 19353

(606) Kolo Harbor about 10 miles west of Kaunakakai, is a large pocket in the reef with a narrow entrance from south. Two private white markers on shore about 300 yards west of Kolo wharf provide a 007° range, which marks the channel through the reef. The channel and the harbor have depths of about 8 feet; the harbor is subject to shoaling. A moderately heavy swell causes heavy surf on the entrance bar, and the combination of surf and current often creates a hazardous condition. Kolo Harbor affords anchorage with limited swinging room, but the swell is felt even though its full force is broken by the outer reefs. The harbor is not recommended for strangers. The ruins of an old wharf are at the head of the harbor.

(607) 
 Chart 19351

(608) From Kolo Harbor west to Lā‘au Point, the coast is low and has a narrow sand beach, broken here and there by short stretches of rocky shore. The coral reef gradually becomes narrower until it disappears at Lā‘au Point.

(609) Haleolono Point 13 miles west of Kaunakakai and 3.5 miles east of Lā‘au Point, is a conspicuous brown bluff, 50 feet high, that extends 0.2 mile along the water’s edge.

(610) 
 Chart 19353

(611) An abandoned barge harbor (Lono Harbor) is at Haleolono Point. The entrance is marked by a 345° private unlighted range. Two breakwaters provide protection for the harbor. Local knowledge is advisable for entering.

(612) 
 Chart 19351

(613) Wai‘eli is a prominent, bare hill, 625 feet high, 1 mile northeast of Haleolono Point.

(614) Lā‘au Point the southwest extremity of Moloka‘i, is low and rocky; the 10-fathom curve is about 0.5 mile offshore. Laau Point Light (21°05'59"N., 157°18'18"W.), 151 feet above the water, is shown from an 18-foot pole with a black and white diamond-shaped dayboard on a bluff near the point. The prevailing current off Lā‘au Point is north, and vessels are cautioned against a set onto the point.

(615) Penguin Bank an extensive shelf, makes out from the west end of Moloka‘i in a general west-southwest direction for a distance of 28 miles from Lā‘au Point. The bank is fairly flat and consists of sand and coral at depths of 21 to 30 fathoms. Along the north, west and south edges, the bank drops off very abruptly into depths of more than 100 fathoms.

(616) In the vicinity of Lā‘au Point currents are strong and likely to be erratic. Usually flowing along the west part of the south coast of Moloka‘i is a west current that turns sharply to the north as it rounds the point. A strong tide rip west and north of the point forms breakers when the wind is north. A northeast set over Penguin Bank joins the north current along the west coast of Moloka‘i. This current is not felt in the deep water west of Penguin Bank but is apparent at the edge of the bank when passing inside the 100-fathom curve. There is no apparent connection between this current and the tides, and the trade winds appear to have little effect upon it, although it appears to be stronger or weaker according to whether there is a barometric depression north or south of the islands.

(617) Between Lā‘au Point and ‘Īlio Point, a distance of about 8 miles, the west coast of Moloka‘i is bare, low and rolling, and cut up by a few small gulches. The beach is marked by low bluffs and short stretches of sand, back of which the land rises gently.

(618) ‘Īlio Point 8 miles from Lā‘au Point, is the northwest extremity of Moloka‘i. Breakers have been observed about 0.3 mile off ‘Īlio Point during heavy weather. A 293-foot hill is 0.8 mile inland. During the trades, small craft can find fair anchorage 1.5 miles south of the point.

(619) The north coast of Moloka‘i is mostly bold, but deep-draft vessels should not stand close to the shore. This north coast has no harbor or anchorage that affords shelter in all winds. Kalaupapa is the only port of call for local vessels.

(620) Mokio Point 3 miles east of ‘Īlio Point, is a low, rocky bluff with a detached rock just offshore.

(621) Five miles east of ‘Īlio Point is Hauakea Pali a low cliff that extends inland at right angles to the beach. The seaward end resembles a large, white sandbank and is the most conspicuous landmark in the vicinity. The cliff is the west boundary of the low plain that extends across the island.

(622) East of Hauakea Pali the coastal bluffs gradually rise to precipitous cliffs which are 2,000 to 3,000 feet high in some places.

(623) Kalaupapa Peninsula 16 miles east of ‘Īlio Point, is a low point of land that juts out 2 miles from the face of a high cliff. Moloka‘i Light (21°12'34"N., 156°58'11"W.), 213 feet above the water, is shown from a 138-foot white tower on the outer part of the peninsula. There is deep water close to the peninsula except for the marginal reef just north of Kalaupapa.

(624) Kalaupapa on the west side of Kalaupapa Peninsula is the commercial barge harbor for the community of Hansen’s Disease patients which occupies the peninsula. Special permit is required to land unless on State business. This open harbor has a small breakwater on the north side. The State landing provides 56 feet of berthing space and has depths of 2 to 4 feet alongside. Access is good, and no channel is needed to reach open water. Anchorage can be found in depths of 12 fathoms, 0.2 mile off the landing. A steeple is prominent on the approach from the west.

(625) 
 Chart 19347

(626) The country between Kalaupapa Peninsula and Cape Hālawa has a very irregular and jagged appearance and is more or less covered with vegetation. The coastal cliffs are broken by headlands, bights, and deep gulches. There are no landing places other than the few debris piles in front of the cliffs and the few level spots in the mouths of the gulches.

(627) Kalawao on the southeast side of Kalaupapa Peninsula is a part of the community of Hansen’s Disease patients.

(628) Mōkapu Island 360 feet high, is 3 miles southeast of Moloka‘i Light and 0.7 mile offshore. The island is the outermost of two; Okala Island 370 feet high, is close to shore.

(629) Pahu Point 5 miles southeast of Moloka‘i Light, is a bold, pyramidal headland 1,022 feet high. The point is the seaward end of a sharp ridge that extends inland along the west side of a deep gulch. Mōkōlea Rock over which the sea always breaks, is 0.6 mile northeast of the point.

(630) Umilehi Point 1 mile east of Pahu Point, is particularly conspicuous and appears to be a small crater with the entire seaward side blown out. Mōkoholā Island 20 feet high, is a dark rock 0.3 mile off Umilehi Point.

(631) The east half of Moloka‘i’s north coast is noted for its rugged scenery and high waterfalls. Pāpalaua Falls 10 miles east of Kalaupapa Peninsula and 5 miles west of Cape Hālawa, start from an elevation of about 2,000 feet at the head of a deep gulch and have a 500-foot drop in one place.

(632) Hālawa Bay is between Lamaloa Head an 837-foot cliff, and Cape Hālawa, the east extremity of Moloka‘i. The bay, which is about 1.5 miles wide between Lamaloa Head and Cape Hālawa extends about 0.7 mile inland, affords no shelter from the trades, but indifferent anchorage can be found in depths of 5 fathoms about 0.3 mile from the head. The shores of the bay are mostly backed by high cliffs; there are two black rocks close to the south shore.

(633) Hālawa consists of a few houses at the mouth of a deep gulch on the southwest side of Hālawa Bay. The gulch penetrates west, and a waterfall is visible 1 mile from the mouth. A triangular cliff, 300 feet high, is conspicuous about 0.5 mile east of Hālawa.

(634) 
 Chart 19340

(635) Kaiwi Channel between Moloka‘i and O‘ahu, is about 22 miles wide and is clear of obstructions. A general north drift is reported over Penguin Bank and in the vicinity of Lā‘au Point; elsewhere in the channel the currents appear variable, depending mainly upon the direction and velocity of the wind. The trade winds that follow the north and south shores of Moloka‘i draw across Kaiwi Channel toward Makapu‘u Point.

(636) 
 Chart 19357

(637) O‘ahu 22 miles west-northwest across Kaiwi Channel from Moloka‘i, has an area of 604 square statute miles and is third largest of the eight major islands. O‘ahu measures 39 nautical miles southeast-northwest between Makapu‘u and Ka‘ena Points and 26 miles south-north between Kalaeloa and Kahuku Point. The island has two prominent mountain ranges, and its skyline is rough and jagged.

(638) Ko‘olau Range parallels the northeast coast for nearly its entire length. The part of the range between Makapu‘u Point and Kāne‘ohe Bay has on its seaward side a sheer, rocky cliff, or pali, nearly 2,000 feet high in some places. Northwest of Kāne‘ohe Bay, the cliffs give way to steep, rugged slopes. From offshore, the northwest half of the range appears as a long ridge, sloping gradually downward, and ending in low bluffs near Kahuku Point. The crest of the ridge and about half the seaward slope are wooded; the lower part of the slope is grass-covered. The entire range has a very jagged appearance and is cut up on its inland side by deep gorges and valleys. The greatest elevation in Ko‘olau Range is at Kōnāhuanui 3,150 feet high and 5 miles back of Honolulu; the peak is on the east side of Nuuanu Valley and overlooks the famous Nu‘uanu Pali at the head of the valley. Two miles closer to Honolulu is Tantalus a rounded peak, 2,013 feet high, with a heavily wooded summit. On the seaward side of Ko‘olau Range the land is mostly low and rolling; it is cut by a few sharp hills, and is under cultivation.

(639) Waianae Mountains parallel the southwest coast for nearly the entire distance between Ka‘ena Point and Kalaeloa. Several spurs extending from the range toward the shore form short valleys. The range has numerous high peaks; Ka‘ala 4,046 feet high, is the highest.

(640) Between the two mountain ranges is an extensive plain which extends from Pearl Harbor on the south to Hale‘iwa on the north; the plain rises to an elevation of about 1,000 feet at Wahiawā. There are low, flat, coastal plains between Honolulu and Kalaeloa, in the vicinity of Wai‘anae, Hale‘iwa, and Kahuku Point, and between Kāne‘ohe Bay and Waimānalo.

(641) Prominent headlands on O‘ahu are Makapu‘u Head, Koko Head, Diamond Head, Ka‘ena Point, Kahuku Point, Kualoa Point, and Mōkapu Peninsula. The entire coast of the island is fringed with coral reefs 0.5 to 1 mile in width, except along parts of the west shore between Kalaeloa and Ka‘ena Point. From Ka‘ena Point to Kahuku Point, the reefs are not so continuous as along other parts of the island.

(642) 
 Harbors and ports
(643) The largest harbors on O‘ahu are Kāne‘ohe Bay and Pearl Harbor; the latter is a prohibited area. Small-craft harbors include Maunalua Bay, Honolulu’s Ala Wai Boat Harbor and Kewalo Basin, Waianae Harbor, and Haleiwa Small-Boat Harbor in Waialua Bay. The northeast coast is exposed to the trade winds during most of the year, and the only small-craft shelter available is in Kāne‘ohe Bay.

(644) 
 Currents
(645) The currents around O‘ahu depend largely upon the winds and are variable in velocity and direction. The general tendency is a west or north flow along the coast. Tidal currents and eddies are noticeable in some places.

(646) 
 Weather, O ‘ ahu
(647) Thanks largely to the marked marine influence and the persistent trade winds, the climate of O‘ahu is unusually pleasant for the tropics. Records at the International Airport at Honolulu, on the leeward side of the island, show a lowest temperature of 52°F (11.1°C) and a highest of 95°F (35°C). August is the warmest month with an average temperature of 81.3°F (27.4°C). January and February are the coolest with an average temperature of 73.0°F (22.8°C). Each month, May through November, has recorded maximum temperatures in excess of 90°F (32.2°C) while each month from November through May has recorded minimum temperatures of 60°F (15.6°C) or lower. Throughout the year, the average daily range in temperature is about 14°F (8°C).

(648) In some parts of the Ko‘olau Range the annual rainfall is as much as 300 inches (7620 mm). The driest region is the southwest where rainfall drops to below 20 inches (508 mm) a year. At the International Airport, the average annual precipitation is only about 22 inches (559 mm) ranging from about 3.5 inches (89 mm) in December to about one-third of an inch (9.7 mm) in June.

(649) 
 Supplies and repairs
(650) All kinds of supplies are available at Honolulu, and medium-size vessels can be handled for repairs.

(651) 
 Communications
(652) O‘ahu has a good network of hard-surfaced highways. Air and sea transportation is available from Honolulu to the other islands and to the mainland.

(653) Honolulu is the only port in the Hawai‘ian Islands that maintains a commercial radio communication watch.

(654) 
 Chart 19358

(655) Makapu‘u Head the east extremity of O‘ahu, is a bold, barren, rocky headland 647 feet high. Makapuu Point Light (21°18'36"N., 157°38'59"W.), 420 feet above the water, is shown from a 49-foot white cylindrical concrete tower on the head.

(656) The seaward side of Makapu‘u Head is a dark cliff; the inland side slopes rapidly to the valley which separates it from the Ko‘olau Range. The headland is the landfall for vessels inbound to Honolulu from the mainland.

(657) There is deep water close to the outer end of the headland, but shallower water is found along the north and east sides. Deep-draft vessels should give Makapu‘u Head a berth of about 1 mile and/or stay in depths greater than 20 fathoms.

(658) The restricted area of the Makai Undersea Test Range extends northwest and northeast from Makapu‘u Point. (See 33 CFR 334.1410 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(659) Koko Crater 2.6 miles southwest of Makapu‘u Head and 0.5 mile from the beach, is a sharp, brown cone 1,204 feet high. The coast between Makapu‘u Head and Koko Crater is low sand, rock, and shingle; from Koko Crater to Koko Head the coast is rocky, precipitous, and somewhat irregular.

(660) Hanauma Bay 3.5 miles southwest of Makapu‘u Head, is 0.3 mile wide and extends 0.5 mile inland. The waters off the entrance are very choppy during south and east winds. Across the head of the bay is a sand beach that is fringed by 150 yards of coral reefs. The bay is a nature preserve and is a popular snorkeling and scuba diving site. State regulations do not permit boats to enter the bay.

(661) Koko Head 4 miles southwest of Makapu‘u Head, is a bold promontory 640 feet high; the seaward side is precipitous, the top is flat, and it slopes off rapidly on the inland side. The headland is developed on its lower west slopes with residential homes, but its general appearance is mostly brown and barren. There is deep water close to Koko Head. Strong west currents have been reported offshore.

(662) Maunalua Bay is an open bight that extends west from Koko Head to Diamond Head; coral reefs fringe most of the shore. On the west side of Koko Head, a channel, marked by a light and private daybeacons, leads through the reef to a private marina in Kuapa Pond and to a public launching ramp behind the reef. The channel has a least depth of 5 feet, except at the entrance where it shoals to a depth of 3 feet on the east side near Daybeacon 2. Behind the Koko Head reefs is one of the few anchorages that offer small-craft shelter in all weather except kona storms. Although depths are 13 feet, only small craft familiar with the area should venture behind the reefs. Tidal currents in Maunalua Bay flood west and ebb east; slack waters occur at about the times of high and low waters at Honolulu.

(663) 
 Caution
(664) Vessels approaching Honolulu from the east at night should not mistake the lights between Koko Head and Diamond Head for the lights of Waikīkī Beach. Commercial and residential development of the coast along Maunalua Bay has resulted in an increase of background lighting. Vessels have mistaken Makapuu Point Light for Diamond Head Light and run aground on the reef west of Koko Head.

(665) Wailupe 2.7 miles west of Koko Head, is a residential area with a seawall and private piers. A channel, reported dredged to 12 feet, leads through the reefs to Wailupe. Several pipes mark the west side of the entrance channel.

(666) Diamond Head 9 miles west-southwest of Makapu‘u Head, is an extinct volcano 761 feet high. The steep slopes and the top of the crater are bare and brown; the base is brush covered. Diamond Head Light (21°15'21"N., 157°48'34"W.), 147 feet above the water, is shown from a 64-foot white concrete tower near the beach. A lighted buoy is moored in 150 feet of water 0.6 mile off the light. Currents setting in various directions with velocities up to 1 knot were noted about 3 miles southwest of Diamond Head.

(667) 
 Chart 19369

(668) The low coast between Diamond Head and Honolulu Harbor is thickly developed, and palm trees are numerous. Along this stretch is world-famous Waikīkī Beach with its big hotels, surfboarding, outrigger canoe races, and sunbathers. The Waikiki Shore Water Restricted Zone is an area extending about 0.4 mile offshore along Waikīkī Beach. Boating is prohibited in this area, except by permit issued by the Harbors Division, Hawaii Department of Transportation.

(669) 
 Anchorage
(670) A special anchorage is in Kapua Entrance about 0.9 mile south of Waikīkī Beach. (See 33 CFR 110.1 and 110.128d(d) chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(671) Ala Wai Boat Harbor is 2.5 miles northwest of Diamond Head Light. A dredged channel leads from Māmala Bay through the reefs to the basins inside the harbor. In 1967, the channel was dredged to 22 feet. Depths inside the harbor are 8 to 20 feet. The approach to the channel is marked by lighted buoys and the channel is marked by private buoys, daybeacons, and a 013°30' lighted range. Mariners are advised to line up on the range before entering or exiting the harbor at night.

(672) During the trades, the winds within the harbor are distorted by the nearby tall buildings. Vessels maneuvering in the harbor under sail should beware of sudden changes in the direction and velocity of the wind. The harbor can be entered in all weather except during kona storms. During the summer months, very large swells can be found outside Ala Wai Harbor; mariners should navigate with the utmost caution during those times.

(673) The harbor is one of the most popular places for small-boat activity on O‘ahu, and yacht clubs in the harbor are the host for the famed transpacific yacht race. The harbor attendant controls the berthing and mooring facilities.

(674) Marine supplies and complete repair facilities are availabe in the harbor including a sailmaker, radio repairs, and a marine railway that can handle craft up to 45 feet.

(675) Kewalo Basin 3.5 miles northwest of Diamond Head Light, is used exclusively by cruise boats, and charter and commercial fishing vessels. A dredged channel leads from Māmala Bay through the reefs to the basin. The channel has a controlling depth of 19 feet. Depths in the basin are from 18 to 22 feet for the most part with shallow depths of less than 4 feet along the edges of the entrance channel. The channel is marked by lighted buoys and a directional light.

(676) At times when stormy south or southwest (kona) winds create high swells, the channel becomes extremely hazardous. There is usually a strong rip current crossing the channel at this time.

(677) 
 Charts 19367, 19369, 19362

(678) Honolulu Harbor is 5 miles northwest of Diamond Head and midway along the south coast of O‘ahu; the harbor is protected from all winds and is usually free of surge. Honolulu is the capital and the principal deepwater port of the State of Hawaii.

(679) 
 Prominent features
(680) Honolulu Harbor Entrance Light (21°17'45"N., 157°52'08"W.), 95 feet above the water, is shown from a white post on the southeast point of the entrance channel. The flashing green light can be easily identified against the background of Honolulu lights.

(681) Sand Island which borders the seaward side of Honolulu Harbor, is Government-owned and has been built up mostly from harbor dredging. The Coast Guard base is on the northeast side of the island.

(682) Aloha Tower a 193-foot cream-colored, square clock tower on Pier 10, is one of the most conspicuous objects in the harbor. The tall, square, twin white office buildings 300 yards east of Aloha Tower are prominent and provide an excellent reference to ships approaching the harbor by day. Punchbowl Hill 500 feet high and flat topped, is 1 mile inland from Aloha Tower. The horizontal blue lights of the Ala Moana Tower restaurant (21°17.8'N., 157°50.7'W.), 1.5 miles east of Honolulu Harbor entrance, are easily distinguished at night and provide an excellent navigation aid.

(683) 
 Caution
(684) Vessels approaching the harbor from the west at night should not mistake the lights between Pearl Harbor and Honolulu for the lights of Honolulu, or the lighted buoys off Kalihi Channel for the lighted buoys off the main entrance. Vessels have mistaken these lights and gone aground off Ke‘ehi Lagoon. From the east the lights north of Diamond Head should not be confused with those of Honolulu, or the lighted aids of Kewalo Basin with those of Honolulu Harbor. Also from the east, vessels should not mistake the lights between Koko Head and Diamond Head for the lights of Waikīkī Beach. Commercial and residential development of the coast along Maunalua Bay has resulted in an increase of background lighting. Vessels have mistaken Makapuu Point Light for Diamond Head Light and run aground on the reef west of Koko Head.

(685) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(686) The lines established for Māmala Bay are described in 33 CFR 80.1420 chapter 2.

(687) 
 Channels
(688) A Federal project provides for a 45-foot Honolulu Entrance Channel from Māmala Bay thence 40 feet in the main harbor basin. The project also provides for a 23-foot channel leading from seaward in Māmala Bay through Kalihi Channel on the west side of Sand Island to Kapālama Basin. The connecting channel between main harbor basin and Kapālama Basin has a 40-foot project depth with 40 feet in the Kapalama Basin. (See Notice to Mariners and the latest editions of charts for controlling depths.)

(689) Honolulu Entrance Channelis marked by lights, buoys, and a 027.9° lighted range. The rear light and marker of the range is sometimes obscured when large ships are moored at Berth 8. Kalihi Channel is marked by lights, buoys, and a 007° lighted range.

(690) Honolulu Harbor Entrance Lighted Buoy H (21°16'51"N., 157°52'48"W.) is 0.7 mile south-southwest of Honolulu Harbor Entrance Channel. The buoy has red and white stripes, with a red topmark, and is equipped with a racon. The buoy transmits an Automatic Identification System (AIS) signal.

(691) The John H. Slattery (Sand Island) highway bridge over the harbor end of Kalihi Channel has fixed spans with a clearance of 14 feet.

(692) 
 Anchorages
(693) General anchorages for commercial vessels are in Māmala Bay, west and southeast of Kalihi Channel Entrance, sand and coral bottom. (See 33 CFR 110.1 and 110.235 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.) Mariners are advised not to use this anchorage or to leave the anchorage during periods of large south swell or strong kona winds. Use of the anchorages is controlled by the Honolulu harbormaster; any vessel that wishes to use an assigned anchorage is required to obtain permission from the harbormater’s office. Vessels entering the anchorage area are required to seek traffic clearance from Aloha Tower traffic control on VHF-FM channel 12; call sign, WHX-528. Vessels are also required to advise Aloha Tower of their departure time from the anchorages. All vessels must monitor VHF-FM channels 16 and 12 while they are in the anchorages. Anchorage is not practical in the harbor basins because of the limited swinging room. Sewer outfall lines extend southwest from a point on Sand Island; mariners are cautioned not to anchor within 600 yards of the sewer line.

(694) 
 Regulated navigation areas
(695) A security zone and safety zone are in Honolulu Harbor and entrance channel. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40, 165.1407 and 165.14-1414 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(696) 
 Currents
(697) It is reported that a tidal current floods west and ebbs east along the coast between Makapu‘u Point and Honolulu. In the vicinity of Honolulu, an east counterflow along the edge of the reef is reported to accompany the west flood. Strong west currents have been reported off Honolulu. Currents setting toward all four quadrants and having velocities up to 1 knot have been noted about 3 miles southwest of Diamond Head.

(698) 
 Tsunamis
(699) The size of a predicted tsunami cannot be estimated in advance. Most of them felt in Honolulu Harbor have been relatively small; the largest of record was 10 feet high in 1960. However, it is prudent to anticipate that even greater ones may strike.

(700) Honolulu Harbor authorities require all ships to vacate the harbor prior to the estimated time of arrival of a sea wave if possible. If a long engine-warmup is necessary, it should be started at the first alert so the vessel may be ready to proceed in time.

(701) Telephone notification will be given by the Captain of the Port to vessel agents who must, in turn, notify their respective ships. Messengers will be used to the extent available to supplement the telephone warnings.

(702) When ready to depart, each ship should obtain clearance from the harbormaster. The Aloha Tower, traffic control, can be contacted on VHF-FM channel 12, call sign WHX-528. The traffic controller will assign each vessel a departure time in accordance with harbor regulations, depending on vessel size, type, location in the harbor, and vessel type priority. Once a vessel has checked in with Aloha Tower traffic control, they are required to monitor VHF-FM channel 12 at all times.

(703) The harbormaster will assign the departure time in accordance with assigned priorities and in consideration of the time each vessel becomes ready to move. The assigned priorities for vessels ready to depart are: Government vessels, passenger vessels, tankers, vessels with explosive cargo, and freighters.

(704) Vessels unable to move in time should take adequate precautions against damage during the tsunami due to the expected rise and fall of the water.

(705) A regulated navigation area for staging vessels in the event of a tsunami evacuation is off the south coast of O‘ahu between Diamond Head and Honolulu International Airport. See 33 CFR 165.1413 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.

(706) (See discussions of tsunamis at beginning of this chapter and in chapter 1.)

(707) Weather, Honolulu
(708) The climate of Hawaii is unusually pleasant for the tropics. Its outstanding features are (1) the persistence of the trade winds, where not disrupted by high mountains; (2) the remarkable variability in rainfall over short distances; (3) the sunniness of the leeward lowlands, in contrast to the persistent cloudiness over nearby mountain crests; (4) the equable temperature from day to day and season to season; and (5) the infrequency of severe storms.

(709) The prevailing wind throughout the year is the northeast trade wind, although its average frequency varies from more than 90 percent during the summer to only 50 percent in January.

(710) Annual rainfall in the Honolulu area averages less than 30 inches along the coast (22 inches at the airport, 24 inches in the downtown area (559 mm and 610 mm, respectively)), but increases inland at about 30 inches (762 mm) a mile. The mean annual number of days with precipitation totals 220. The wettest year on record, 1965, saw nearly 43 inches (1092 mm) while the driest year, 1983, saw only five inches (127 mm) of precipitation. In March 1958, over 15 inches (381 mm) of precipitation fell in one 24-hour period. Parts of the Ko‘olau Range average 300 inches (7620 mm) or more a year. This heavy mountain rainfall sustains extensive irrigation of cane fields and the water supply for Honolulu. East (windward) of the Ko‘olaus, coastal areas receive 30 to 50 inches (762 to 1270 mm) annually; cane and pineapple fields in central O‘ahu get about 35 to 40 inches (889 to 1016 mm). O‘ahu is driest along the coast west of the Waianaes where rainfall drops to about 20 inches (508 mm) a year. However, variations from month to month and year to year are considerable; more so during the cooler season, when occasional major storms provide much of the rain, than in the summer, when rain occurs primarily as showers that form within the moist trade winds as they override the mountains. Thus, March rainfall at Honolulu Airport has ranged from more than 20 inches (508 mm) to as little as 0.001 of an inch (0.03 mm, in effect, a trace). In the mean, about a third of the airport’s annual total occurs during its two wettest months, December and January. Trade-wind rainfall is more frequent at night. Daytime showers, usually light, often occur while the sun continues to shine, a phenomenon referred to locally as “liquid sunshine.”

(711) Average water temperatures at Waikīkī Beach vary from 75°F (23.9°C) in the morning to 77°F (25°C) in the afternoon during March, and from 77°F (25°C) in the morning to 82°F (27.8°C) in the afternoon during August.

(712) Because of the persistence and moderate humidity of the northeast trade winds, even the warmest months are usually comfortable. But when the trades diminish or give way to south winds, a situation known locally as “kona weather” (“kona storms” when stormy), the humidity may become oppressively high.

(713) Weather severe enough to interfere with shipping or travel is uncommon. Intense rains of the October to April “winter” season sometimes causes serious, but local, flash flooding. Thunderstorms are infrequent and usually mild, as compared with those of the midwestern United States. Hail seldom occurs, and when it does it is small and rarely damaging to crops. At great intervals a small tornado or a waterspout moving onshore may do some slight damage. Four hurricanes have struck Hawaii since 1950, but several times that many, and a number of less intense tropical cyclones, most of them drifting west from their breeding grounds off the Mexican coast, have approached near enough for their outlying winds, clouds, and rain to affect the islands.

(714) The National Weather Service office is at the airport; barometers may be compared there or by telephone. (See Appendix A for address.)

(715) (See Appendix B for Honolulu climatological table.)

(716) Pilotage, Honolulu
(717) Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign vessels and U.S. vessels under register in foreign trade; it is optional for U.S. vessels in coastwise trade with a Federal licensed pilot on board. Pilots are available through the Hawaii Pilots Association. Mariners are requested to give 24 hours advance notice of arrival, gross tonnage, length, and draft of vessel by telephone (808–537–4169) or by e-mail at dispatch@hawaiipilots.net. The 41-foot long pilot boat HONOLULU has a black hull with yellow superstructure and displays the words ‘HAWAII PILOTS’ in large white letters on the sides of the cabin. The pilot boat displays the International Code Flag ‘H’ by day and shows the standard pilot lights at night, white over red. The pilot boat monitors VHF-FM channels 12 and 16 and can be reached by “HONOLULU PILOTS” call sign, WXZ-456. Additionally, vessels are requested to rig a pilot ladder 1 meter above the water on the leeward side. The pilot boarding area is 1 mile south of the sea buoy. The pilot station is at pier 19 and monitors VHF-FM channels 12 and 16. When pilots are boarding incoming vessels from the pilot boat, the vessel should maintain a speed of about 5 knots. Foreign and U.S. vessels under registry in foreign trade, and U.S. vessels in coastwise trade without a licensed Federal pilot on board must acquire pilot service before entering the anchorages.

(718) In addition to the above, the State of Hawaii has established special pilotage regulations for all tankers, tanker barges and tankerlike vessels. In general the regulations require these vessels to have on board a Honolulu Port Pilot when entering or departing Honolulu Harbor for any reason. Exempt from this requirement are tankerlike vessels and vessels towing tanker barges when under the control and direction of a person duly licensed as a pilot by the U. S. Coast Guard for the Port of Honolulu, and tankers when departing from anchorage. A copy of the rules and regulations affecting such vessels may be obtained from the Department of Transportation of the State of Hawaii, Harbors Division, Honolulu, or at the office of the harbormaster.

(719) All mariners are advised to monitor Honolulu harbor traffic movements on VHF-FM channel 12 at all times when approaching or transiting the waters of Māmala Bay.

(720) 
 Towage
(721) Tugs up to 4,000 hp, including several z-drive type tractor tugs, are available in Honolulu. Salvage equipment is also available.

(722) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration, and agricultural quarantine
(723) (See chapter 3, Vessel Arrival Inspections, and Appendix A for addresses.)

(724) Quarantine is enforced in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service. (See Public Health Service, chapter 1.)

(725) Honolulu is a customs port of entry.

(726) 
 Coast Guard
(727) Honolulu Coast Guard Base is on the northeast side of Sand Island. The Fourteenth Coast Guard District Office and Sector Office Honolulu are located in Honolulu. (See Appendix A for address.)

(728) 
 Harbor regulations
(729) Harbor regulations are established by the Harbors Division, Hawaii Department of Transportation, and are enforced by the harbormaster. Prior to entry, all vessels must establish communications with Aloha Tower traffic control on VHF-FM channels 12 or 16; call sign, WHX-528. The phone number for Aloha Tower is 808–587–2076.

(730) The speed limit in Honolulu Harbor is 5 knots for all vessels and tows and 10 knots for motorboats, and other small craft.

(731) A flashing amber warning light, privately maintained and shown about 22 feet above the water from a pole about 70 yards south-southwest of Pier 38, is activated when there is a gas leak or the likelihood thereof. Anyone observing the light flashing should remain well clear and upwind, and sources of ignition should be secured.

(732) 
 Wharves
(733) Honolulu has several piers and wharves around its harbor waterfront. Only the deep-draft facilities are listed in the facilities table. The alongside depths for the facilities listed are reported—for information on the latest depths, contact the State of Hawaii, Department of Transportation, Harbors Division or the private operators. All facilities have direct highway connections. Water is available at the berths and most have electrical connections. General cargo at the port is usually handled by ship's tackle. Special handling equipment, if available, is mentioned in the table under Mechanical Handling Facilities. Several cranes to 200 tons can be rented and numerous warehouses/cold storage facilities adjacent to the waterfront are available.


(735) 
 Supplies
(736) Vessels receive bunker fuel at Pier 30 and are usually bunkered at berth by tank barges. Other operators at the port provide bunker fuel solely to vessels using their particular facility.

(737) 
 Repairs
(738) Above and below the waterline repairs of any nature can be made at Honolulu. A floating drydock is available and has a lifting capacity of 8,000 tons, 463-foot length over the keel blocks, 78-foot width between the wing walls (maximum width of 101 feet), and a 20-foot depth over the blocks. A large marine railway is available in the port with a lifting capacity of 400 tons, 222-foot length, 63-foot width, and 10-foot depth. In an emergency large commercial vessels have been handled at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard.

(739) 
 Communications
(740) Honolulu is a major port of call for transpacific vessels, and there is commercial barge service to and from the other islands. Air service, passenger and freight, includes scheduled flights to the other islands, to the mainland, and to west and southwest Pacific areas.

(741) 
 Chart 19369

(742) Ke‘ehi Lagoon 6 miles northwest of Diamond Head is triangular in shape and is fronted by coral reefs. The cuts through the lagoon are former seaplane landing areas. Kalihi Channel, previously mentioned, cuts through the southeast part of the lagoon. A privately dredged channel branches northwest from Kalihi Channel to a small-boat harbor and a barge harbor and turning basin on the east side of the landing areas. In 2009, the controlling depth was 18 feet in the channel to the turning basin; thence in 13 feet was in the basin. The barge channel is marked by a private 334° lighted range.

(743) 
 Anchorage
(744) A special anchorage is in Ke‘ehi Lagoon on the west side of the barge channel. (See 33 CFR 110.1 and 110.128d(c) chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(745) Submerged pipelines, centered about 160 yards northeast from the north corner of the special anchorage, extend from the southeast to the northwest side of Ke‘ehi Lagoon; mariners should avoid anchoring in the pipeline area.

(746) 
 Regulated navigation areas
(747) A Security Zone has been established in Kalihi Channel and Ke‘ehi Lagoon. (See 33 CFR 165.1407 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(748) Honolulu International Airport on the north shore of Ke‘ehi Lagoon, is the largest commercial airport in the State. The control tower (21°19'14"N., 157°55'38"W.) is prominent from seaward.

(749) 
 Charts 19357, 19369, 19366

(750) A low, flat plain, 3 to 5 miles wide, borders the sandy shore between Ke‘ehi Lagoon and Kalaeloa. The area includes Pearl Harbor and several airfields. west of Pearl Harbor, most of the area is developed with residential communities.

(751) Pearl Harbor 9.5 miles west-northwest of Diamond Head, is a Defensive Sea Area established by Executive Order No. 8143 of May 26, 1939. The order says in part:

(752) “The area of water in Pearl Harbor, Island of O‘ahu, Territory of Hawaii, lying between extreme high-water mark and the sea, and in and about the entrance channel to said harbor, within an area bounded by the extreme high-water mark, a line bearing south from the southwest corner of the Puuloa Naval Reservation, a line bearing south from Ahua Point, and a line bearing west from a point 3 miles due south from Ahua Point, has been established as a defensive sea area for purposes of national defense, and no persons (other than persons on public vessels of the United States) are permitted to enter this defensive sea area, and no vessels or other craft (other than public vessels of the United States) are permitted to navigate in this area, except by authority of the Secretary of the Navy.”

(753) Permission to enter Pearl Harbor must be obtained in advance from Commander, Navy Region Hawaii 96860.

(754) Pilotage, Pearl Harbor
(755) All vessels, except commissioned ships of the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard, are required to take a pilot when entering or departing Pearl Harbor. Pilots meet vessels at Approach Point PAPA HOTEL (21°16’06"N., 157°56’23"W.), about 2 miles southeast of the entrance buoys. All vessels destined for Pearl Harbor must pass through this point, which is marked by a virtual automatic identification system (V-AIS) navigational aid.

(756) Pearl Harbor Control maintains a 24 hour guard on VHF-FM channel 69. It is requested that vessels guard VHF-FM channel 69, 1 hour before entrance, and continuously thereafter unless guard for this circuitry is arranged after arrival. The voice call of Pearl Harbor Port Control is “Pearl Harbor Control;” ships use own ship’s name as voice call.

(757) The fan-shaped harbor has an entrance width of 400 yards and a greatest inland extent of 5 miles. The entrance channel is marked by lights, a lighted range, lighted and unlighted buoys. The main basin is divided by two peninsulas and an island into four smaller basins known as West Loch Middle Loch East Loch and Southeast Loch. Tidal currents are generally weak. A dangerous west set may be experienced in the vicinity of the entrance to Pearl Harbor Channel.

(758) 
 Anchorages
(759) With the exception of a few special/small-craft anchorages, anchorage is forbidden within Pearl Harbor. In an emergency, if a vessel finds it necessary to anchor in Pearl Harbor, caution must be exercised to avoid cable and pipeline areas.

(760) Special anchorages are on the east side of the Pearl Harbor Entrance Channel near Kumumau Point; on the west side of the channel in the lagoon south of Iroquois Point; and in ‘Aiea Bay on the east side of East Loch. (See 33 CFR 110.1 and 110.128d (e) through (h) chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(761) 
 Chart 19362

(762) Kalaeloa 17 miles west of Diamond Head, is the southwest extremity of O‘ahu. The low land back of the rounding point extends 3 miles north to the foothills of the Waianae Mountains; the hill slopes are steep and partly brush covered but the bare soil that shows in places gives them a reddish appearance.

(763) Barbers Point Light (21°17'47"N., 158°06'22"W.), 85 feet above the water, is shown from a 75-foot white cylindrical concrete tower. A reef extends 0.6 mile off the light.

(764) In 1996, Captain of the Port Honolulu amended federal pilotage waters in the vicinity of the offshore pipeline terminal off Kalaeloa. The area was expanded to be identical to that designated in 1995 for vessels engaged in foreign commerce and is defined by the following points:

(765) 21°17'47"N., 158°06'23"W.; thence to

(766) 21°14'49"N., 158°06'23"W.; thence to

(767) 21°14'49"N., 158°03'10"W.; thence to

(768) 21°15'26"N., 158°00'57"W.; thence to

(769) 21°18'18"N., 158°01'49"W.; thence along the shoreline to the point of beginning.

(770) All foreign trade vessels, U.S. vessels under registry, and U.S. vessels engaged in coastwise trade operating within this area must be under the direction and control of a first class pilot.

(771) Two naval danger zones and a restricted area have been established between Kalaeloa and the entrance to Pearl Harbor. (See 33 CFR 334.1360 334.1370 and 334.1400 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(772) Three offshore oil tanker mooring terminals and their submarine pipelines are located within a restricted anchorage area and security zone off Kalaeloa. (See 33 CFR 110.236 and 165.1407 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.) All vessels, except for vessels with official business at the tanker terminals, should stay well south of these areas in order to avoid the unlit mooring buoys located there.

(773) 
 Currents
(774) There is a general west current along the coast between Honolulu and Kalaeloa. Velocities up to 0.8 knot, setting west, have been measured off the point, and greater velocities have been reported.

(775) 
 Chart 19357

(776) The coast has a general northwest trend between Kalaeloa and Ka‘ena Point, a distance of about 20 miles, and consists of alternating ledges of rock and stretches of white sand. Spurs of the Waianae Mountains extend to most of the points. Between the spurs and ridges are heavily wooded valleys that contrast with the rocky and bare mountains. A highway follows the coast from just north of Kalaeloa to Ka‘ena Point.

(777) Much of the shoreline is fringed with rocks and reefs, but they are mostly close to the shore. The 3-fathom curve is within 0.5 mile of the shore, and the 10-fathom curve is within 1 mile. Vessels can avoid all outlying dangers by giving the coast a berth of 1 to 1.5 miles. Other than Pōka‘ī Bay, there are no harbors or anchorages along the west coast that afford shelter in all winds.

(778) Barbers Point Harbor is about 2 miles northwest of Kalaeloa. A dredged channel leads northeast to a basin in the harbor. In 2011, the controlling depth was 38 feet in the entrance channel to the basin, thence 35 to 39 feet in the basin. The channel is marked by lighted buoys, lights, and a 045° lighted range. A security zone and safety zone are in the harbor. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40, 165.1407 and 165.14-1414 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(779) The basin has a 1,600-foot dock with a 30-acre paved backup area and 120 acres for cargo handling and storage. A ship repair company has an 18,000-ton drydock capable of handling vessels over 600 feet long and 94 feet wide. Vessels entering the harbor during the winter months should be aware of large swells coming from the north.

(780) Pilotage, Barbers Point Harbor
(781) A state licensed pilot is required to enter the harbor. Pilots are available through the Hawaii Pilots Association. Mariners are requested to give 24 hours advance notice of arrival, gross tonnage, length and draft of vessel by telephone (809–537–4169) or by e-mail at dispatch@hawaiipilots.net. The 31-foot long pilot boat IWA has a black hull with yellow superstructure and displays the word ‘PILOTS’ in large white letters on the sides of the cabin. The pilot boat displays the International Code Flag ‘H’ by day and shows the standard pilot lights at night, white over red. The pilot boat monitors VHF-FM channels 12 and 16 and can be reached by “BARBERS POINT PILOTS”. Additionally, vessels are requested to rig a pilot ladder 1 meter above the water on the leeward side. The pilot boarding area is 2 miles southwest of the entrance buoys.

(782) A marina harbor entrance, marked by lights, is in the northwest portion of the basin. Gasoline, diesel fuel, 267 slips, electricity, water, pump-out, marine supplies, and a public boat ramp are available at the marina. In 2003, the harbormaster reported that the marina could accommodate vessels up to 150 feet in length with a draft of 13 feet.

(783) A flashing amber warning light, privately maintained and shown from a pole about 22 feet high on the south side of the harbor, is activated when there is a gas leak or the likelihood thereof. Anyone observing the light flashing should remain well clear and upwind, and sources of ignition should be secured.

(784) Barbers Point Harbor is a customs port of entry.

(785) Kahe Point 3.5 miles north of Kalaeloa, is the seaward end of a mountain spur. A large power plant is prominent on the point. The largest stack is 485 feet high with a strobe light on top. Two short boulder groins extending from the shore protect the intake of the plant’s cooling system. The outfall is about 250 yards offshore with 9 feet of water over it.

(786) Nānākuli 5.5 miles north of Kalaeloa, is a homestead area near the shore.

(787) Pu‘u‘ohulu about 7 miles northwest of Kalaeloa, is a narrow rocky, barren ridge, 1.5 miles long. A large water tank is on the saddle of the south slope. The ridge is on Mā‘ili Point the south of the two important projecting points of this coast, and is the most conspicuous landmark in this vicinity. The west end of the ridge is close to the shore and has an elevation of 856 feet; it is precipitous on its seaward side.

(788) 
 Chart 19361

(789) Lualuaei Homestead tracts are north and northeast of Pu‘u‘ohulu. Two 1,500-foot radio towers are prominent in the valley. Pu‘umā‘ili‘ili about 2 miles north of Pu‘u‘ohulu, is a narrow, rocky ridge, 723 feet high, near the shore and approximately at right angles with it.

(790) Low Kaneilio Point 10 miles northwest of Kalaeloa, projects 0.2 mile from the general coastline. A fish haven consisting of old auto bodies is 1 mile south of the point. Between Pu‘u‘ohulu and Kaneilio Point the light-colored buildings of a limekiln 0.3 mile inland show up against a dark background. In 1999, suspected live ordnance was reported about 2 miles southwest of Kaneilio Point inside the following coordinates: 21°26'23"N., 158°12'11"W.; 21°26'23"N., 158°12'38"W.; 21°25'26"N., 158°12'38"W.; 21°25'26"N., 158°12'11"W.

(791) Pōka‘ī Bay on the northwest side of Kaneilio Point, is the seaward approach to Wai‘anae. Shallow water extends 0.3 mile from the inner shore of the bay. The breakwater extending north from Kaneilio Point and the opposing boulder groin from the inner shore form a State water recreation area. Swim zone buoys are about midway between the breakwater and the shore. The area east of the buoys is for swimming, and the area between the buoys and the breakwater is for outrigger canoes. No person shall operate, anchor or moor any other vessel in the area between the buoys and the breakwater except in adverse weather conditions when emergency anchoring is permitted.

(792) Waianae Boat Harbor 0.5 mile northwest of Kaneilio Point, is owned and operated by the State of Hawaii and is used primarily by fishing boats. The harbor is is protected on the west side by a 1,690-foot-long L-shaped breakwater, marked on its seaward end by a light, and on the northeast side at the entrance by a 220-foot-long stub breakwater. A 003.3° lighted range marks the entrance approach. Transient berths, water and two double launching ramps are available at the harbor. Wai‘anae harbormaster has scheduled daytime hours (0745 to 1630) Tuesdays through Saturdays; phone numbers are: 808–697–7095 (business) and 808–851–1839 or 808–696–9921 (emergency or after hours); 808–594–0849 (fax).

(793) 
 Local magnetic disturbance
(794) Differences of 2° or more from normal variation may be expected in Pōka‘ī Bay.

(795) A deep valley extends about 4 miles inland between Pu‘u‘ohulu and Lahilahi Point and is the largest valley on this side of the Waianae Range. The broken ridge which makes down to Pu‘upāhe‘ehe‘e divides the valley. Pu‘upāhe‘ehe‘e 652 feet high, is about 1 mile inland from Wai‘anae.

(796) Lahilahi Point 1.7 miles northwest of Kaneilio Point, is a detached, steep ridge of dark rock, 234 feet high. This narrow, conspicuous point, projecting seaward about 0.2 mile, has the appearance of an islet from a distance and is known to local fishermen as Black Rock. An apartment building on the beach 250 yards north of the point and a hotel about 1.2 miles north-northeast of the point are good landmarks.

(797) Kepuhi Point 13 miles northwest of Kalaeloa, is a few hundred yards from the seaward end of a bold, rocky, mountain spur.

(798) 
 Chart 19357

(799) The coastal bight between Kepuhi Point and Ka‘ena Point, 7 miles to the northwest, is backed mostly by ridges of the Waianae Mountains. Midway along the bight is a sand beach in front of a small valley; small boats can make beach landings when the sea is smooth and can anchor in depths of 4 to 6 fathoms about 0.2 mile offshore.

(800) Ka‘ena Point the northwest extremity of O‘ahu, is low and rocky and is only a few hundred yards from the foot of Kuaokala Ridge. A light is on the lower west end of the Point. Off the end of the point are several low, jagged rocks, over which the sea washes, and breakers extend about 0.4 mile from shore. The 10-fathom curve is 0.8 mile west of the point.

(801) The danger zone of a firing area covers a wide sector north of Ka‘ena Point. (See 33 CFR 334.1350 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(802) 
 Currents
(803) A continuous northwest current and moderate tide rips are reported off Ka‘ena Point. Observations over a 24-hour period at a location 0.8 mile south of Ka‘ena Point show a northwest current averaging 0.8 knot; the greatest velocity measured was 1 knot.

(804) The north coast of O‘ahu trends east for 9 miles from Ka‘ena Point to Waialua, thence northeast for another 11 miles to Kahuku Point; rock ledges alternate with stretches of white sand beach. The broad valley back of Waialua spreads to the coastal plain, which narrows as it approaches Ka‘ena and Kahuku Points; most of the valley is cultivated in sugarcane. From Ka‘ena Point to Waialua the mountains have a rugged appearance; from Waialua to Kahuku Point the hills resemble a continuous plateau. A hard-surface highway parallels the coast.

(805) Most of the north coast is fringed with reefs as much as 0.5 mile in width, but all dangers can be avoided by staying at least 1 mile from shore. Haleiwa Small-Boat Harbor is the only harbor along the north coast.

(806) Kuaokala Ridge back of Ka‘ena Point, is high, and its seaward end breaks off rather abruptly. White domes and telemetry antennas are conspicuous along the ridge. The scattered beach houses between Ka‘ena Point and Waialua are backed by cultivated fields that extend to the mountains.

(807) Kaiaka Bay is a small coastal dent 9 miles east of Ka‘ena Point; Kiikii Stream and Paukauila Stream empty into the head of the bay. Prominent from offshore is the mill stack in Waialua 0.5 mile back of the beach. A depth of 3 feet can be carried halfway into the bay by passing between the Kaiaka Point reefs, on the northeast side, and the reef in midentrance.

(808) Waialua Bay 1 mile northeast of Kaiaka Bay, is a small dent at the bend in the middle of the north coast. The bay shores are low, black rock, with sand patches in the bights and fringed by large algaroba trees. The low land back of the beach slopes gently to a tableland with mountain ranges on either side. Hale‘iwa is at the head of Waialua Bay.

(809) Haleiwa Small-Boat Harbor at the head of Waialua Bay is protected by a breakwater on the west at the entrance and a breakwater further inside; both are marked by lights on the outer ends. The approach to the harbor is marked by lighted and unlighted buoys, lights and a 128.9° lighted range. The entrance channel leads southwest and south between two breakwaters to a basin inside. The harbor has 64 slips and 24 moorings available for vessels up to 50 feet, boat ramps and water at most of the slips. The harbor can be entered in all but the most violent storms, at which time good anchorage can be found about 1 mile offshore in 20 to 30 fathoms. Night entry is not recommended without local knowledge. The harbor office can be reached at 808–637–8246.

(810) ‘Anahulu River empties into the southwest corner of Waialua Bay. River navigation is restricted by the fixed bridge over the mouth; the clearance is 8 feet for a channel width of 14 feet.

(811) The narrow coastal plain between Waialua and Kahuku Point is backed by a vegetation-covered tableland with steep seaward slopes that are cut by deep gorges.

(812) Waimea Bay 5 miles northeast of Waialua, is a small coastal dent at the mouth of the Waimea River gorge. The highway bridge over the river can be seen from seaward. A yellow-brown tower and scattered buildings are visible on the north side of the bay.

(813) Wānanapaoa Islands are two ragged masses of black rock off the south point of Waimea Bay; deep water is close to the seaward side. The submerged rocks near the point on the northeast side of the bay are usually marked by breakers.

(814) Waimea Bay affords little shelter, and beach landings can be made only in very smooth weather. There is a wide beach at the head of the bay, but both sides of the entrance are fringed with rocky ledges. Indifferent anchorage is available in depths of 9 or 10 fathoms, sand bottom, 0.3 mile west of the river mouth.

(815) Waiale‘e is 4 miles northeast of Waimea Bay. A group of large conspicuous buildings is at the foot of a bluff a few hundred yards inland. Also prominent are two large dish antennas atop a ridge about 1.3 miles southwest of Waiale‘e and a windmill with a strobe light about 2.0 miles east-southeast. Low Kuilima Point 5.4 miles northeast of Waimea Bay, has a resort hotel complex on the point.

(816) Kahuku Point the north extremity of O‘ahu, is low and sandy; the dunes are partly overgrown with vegetation, and there are few scattered trees. The coast rounds gradually at Kahuku Point, and there are several small black rocks close to shore. The land rises gently from the low bluffs near the point to the mountains of Ko‘olau Range. The 10-fathom curve draws in to within 0.4 mile of the point. The breakers afford sufficient daytime warning of coastal dangers, but the low, unmarked point is difficult to locate at night. Currents off Kahuku Point set west or northwest, but are sometimes negligible; tide rips have been reported 1 mile east of the point.

(817) The coast between Kahuku Point and Makapu‘u Point, 30 miles to the southeast, is known as Windward O‘ahu and is more productive than other parts of the island because of its greater rainfall. Paralleling this coast is the Ko‘olau Range from which several spurs reach shore between Lā‘ie Bay and Kāne‘ohe Bay. The shore is low and sandy with patches of black rock outcrop, particularly at the headlands and most of the points. Between the shore and Ko‘olau Range is a narrow strip of cultivated land; this coastal area widens between Kāne‘ohe Bay and Waimānalo and is one of the principal agricultural areas of O‘ahu. There are good highways along the entire coast.

(818) Nearly all of this northeast coast is fringed by coral reefs with little or no water over them at low tide, and the area is exposed throughout most of the year to the sea and swell built up by the northeast trades. The numerous small openings in the reefs can be navigated by local craft; wider openings lead to Kahana, Kāne‘ohe, Kailua, and Waimānalo Bays. The 10-fathom curve is no farther than 1.6 miles from shore except in Kāne‘ohe Bay.

(819) Kahuku 3 miles southeast of Kahuku Point, is marked by a mill stack which is a half mile from the beach.

(820) Low Makahoa Point projects 0.2 mile from the general coast 3.5 miles southeast of Kahuku Point. Kīhewamoku an islet 24 feet high, is 0.5 mile off Makahoa Point; 0.2 mile north of the islet is a rock that covers 4 feet and sometimes breaks.

(821) Wooded Kalanai Point 4 miles southeast of Kahuku Point is on the north side of Lā‘ie Bay. Mokuauia an island 0.2 mile long and 23 feet high, is 0.2 mile off the point; between the island and the point are depths of only 1 or 2 feet. A rock 0.2 mile seaward of the island is covered 10 feet.

(822) Pulemoku a rock 30 feet high, is 0.4 mile southeast of Mokuauia. A 2-foot-high rock is close to the south side of Pulemoku.

(823) Lā‘ie Bay has outer depths of 3 to 7 fathoms, and a narrow reef opening affords access to shelter and landing for local small craft. Lā‘ie at the head of the bay, has a Mormon Temple, a large, flat-roofed building that is visible from seaward.

(824) Laniloa a narrow peninsula with white sandy beaches on either side and covered with homes is on the south side of Lā‘ie Bay. Off the outer end of Laniloa are two small rocky islets; Kukuiho‘olua 30 feet high and Mokuālai 33 feet high.

(825) Kaipapa‘u Hill about 700 feet high, is 2 miles south of Laniloa and 0.5 mile inland; the hill has a pyramidal, grass-covered top.

(826) Hau‘ula is a beach settlement 2.5 miles south of Laniloa. Punalu‘u 4 miles south of Laniloa, is a beach settlement with a prominent apartment building near the beach.

(827) Kahana Bay 11 miles southeast of Kahuku Point, has an entrance width of 1 mile between Makali‘i Point on the north and Māhie Point on the southeast; inland extent is 0.6 mile. Local small craft make the narrow passage through the reef and find limited shelter behind it. A breakwater protects a launching ramp on the west side of the bay. The breakers on both sides of the bay are the only guides for entering.

(828) 
 Chart 19359

(829) Kualoa Point 15 miles southeast of Kahuku Point, is on the northwest side of the entrance to Kāne‘ohe Bay. Mokoli‘i Island 206 feet high, is a conspicuous conical islet 0.3 mile seaward of Kualoa Point.

(830) Kāne‘ohe Bay has an entrance width of 4.6 miles between Kualoa Point on the northwest and Mōkapu Peninsula on the southeast; greatest inland extent is 3 miles. The bay has low sand and coral beaches along which are many of the old diked fishponds, some which are still in use. Islands, coral reefs, and sand shoals are numerous throughout the bay. Mokoli‘i Island, Kapapa Island about 2.8 miles southeast of Kualoa Point and in the center of Kāne‘ohe Bay, and Kekepa Island mushroom-shaped and 4.4 miles southeast of Kualoa Point, are easy to identify from seaward. These islands make for poor landfall. Moku o Loe Island (Coconut Island) in the southwest part of the bay, is the largest of the islands with reports of significant uncharted coral shoaling on all sides; the majority being found south of the island.

(831) The University of Hawaii operates a launch that ferries university personnel to and from the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology on the island of Moku o Loe. The launch runs from the island to a nearby pier on the southwest side of Kāne‘ohe Bay.

(832) Kāne‘ohe Bay is a Naval Defensive Sea Area. established by Executive Order No. 8681 of February 14, 1941. The order says in part:

(833) “The territorial waters within Kāne‘ohe Bay between extreme high-water mark and the sea and in and about the entrance channel within a line extending 3 miles northeast from Ka‘o‘io Point, a line extending 4 miles northeast from Kapaho Point, and a line joining the seaward extremities of the two above-described bearing lines, are hereby established and reserved as a naval defensive sea area for purposes of national defense, such area to be known as Kāne‘ohe Bay Naval Defensive Sea Area; and the airspace over the said territorial waters is hereby set apart and reserved as a naval airspace reservation for purposes of national defense, such reservation to be known as Kāne‘ohe Bay Naval Airspace Reservation.”

(834) “At no time shall any person, other than persons on public vessels of the United States, enter Kāne‘ohe Bay Naval Defensive Sea Area, nor shall any vessel or other craft, other than public vessels of the United States, be navigated into said area unless authorized by the Secretary of the Navy.”

(835) “At no time shall any aircraft, other than public aircraft of the United States, be navigated into Kāne‘ohe Bay Naval Airspace Reservation, unless authorized by the Secretary of the Navy.”

(836) Note: Naval control over entry into Kāne‘ohe Bay Naval Defensive Sea Area has been suspended, except for a 500-yard prohibited area around the perimeter of Mōkapu Peninsula where only authorized vessels may enter. Naval control may, however, be reinstated without notice at any time.

(837) Kaneohe Marine Corps Air Station is on Mōkapu Peninsula. Mariners are advised that field operations are conducted throughout the year and divers, rafts and aircraft may be operating in the bay. Additionally, Military Amphibious/Search and Rescue operations may be underway at any time, day or night, in the vicinity of 21°26'06"N., 157°46'11"W. and 21°26'45"N., 157°46'55"W. Surface support craft will be marked with appropriate day and night time markings/signals and can be reached via MARBAND 82A for any reason. Request that vessels using sonar contact Water Front Operations via MARBAND 82A or 808–257–2941 to avoid injury to divers that may be in the area. Caution should be exercised when operating near the air station runway.

(838) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(839) The lines established for Kāne‘ohe Bay are described in 33 CFR 80.1430 chapter 2.

(840) Two channels lead through the reefs to the southeast end of the bay. The deeper approach from the north end of the bay is through a dredged channel entered about 2 miles east of Kualoa Point. The channel is marked by lights, buoys, daybeacons, and a 227° and a 349°30' lighted range with the front range tower common to both. Sampan Channel (Kaneohe Passage) to the southeast, is entered about 0.8 mile northwest of the north extremity of Mōkapu Peninsula. This channel intersects the deeper channel about 0.9 mile west of Mōkapu Peninsula and is marked by a 217°15' lighted range, daybeacons, and lighted and unlighted buoys.

(841) Crashboat Channel about 0.4 mile west of Mōkapu Peninsula, has been dredged by the Navy for search and rescue vessels. This channel is within the prohibited area and should not be used by pleasure craft as it may hamper aid to a needy vessel or downed pilot. The Navy monitors VHF-FM channels 16 and 82A at its search and rescue facility on the southwest side of Mōkapu Peninsula; telephone number (808–257–2941).

(842) 
 Anchorages
(843) Special anchorages are in the southeast and west parts of Kāne‘ohe Bay. (See 33 CFR 110.1 and 110.128d (a) and (b) chapter 2, for limits and regulations.) Anchoring in Kāne‘ohe Bay outside of these areas is limited to 72 hours. To obtain authorization for longer durations, contact the Harbor Master at 808–233–3603.

(844) 
 Dangers
(845) Mariners are advised to exercise caution as the channels and other dredged areas in the bay have not been dragged or swept. Numerous coral heads are along the sides of the channels, especially in the vicinity of Moku o Loe Island. Many of these are marked by privately maintained pipes extending 3 to 5 feet above the water.

(846) The bay is by far the best locality for the operation of small craft on O‘ahu. Many permits are being obtained by property owners to dredge small-boat basins and channels through the reefs. Numerous docks, including the Kaneohe Yacht Club, are in the bay. In addition, many uncharted private floats and buoys, used to mark race courses, moorings, and fish and lobster pots are throughout the bay.

(847) A 015°–195° measured course 3,038 feet long, is southeast of Moku o Loe Island in Kāne‘ohe Bay. The range markers are 30-by 40-inch white daymarks with orange borders set on coral reefs about 0.4 mile off the southeast shore of the bay.

(848) Kāne‘ohe near the southeast end of the bay is the principal community in the area. Radio towers are prominent at He‘eia a mile northwest of Kāne‘ohe.

(849) He‘eia Kea Small-Boat Harbor just north of Kealohi Point about 0.9 mile north of He‘eia, is open to the public. In 1999, the controlling depth in the harbor was 6½ feet. The fuel pier has a reported depth of 10 feet alongside. Gasoline, diesel fuel, berths, water, ice, and launching ramps are available. Anchorage in the harbor is by permit only. The Harbor Master can be contacted at 808–233–3603.

(850) 
 Chart 19357

(851) Mōkapu Peninsula 20 miles southeast of Kahuku Point, has a greatest elevation of 683 feet. Pyramid Rock on the northwest point of the peninsula, is black and has a sharp summit. Pyramid Rock Light (21°27'44"N., 157°45'49"W.), 101 feet above the water, is shown from a white square concrete house with black diagonal stripes. Puu Hawaiiloa is a 337–foot hill near the center of the peninsula. A red and white skeleton tower and a nearby aerobeacon atop the hill are the most prominent navigation aids on the peninsula.

(852) 
 Danger zone
(853) A weapons training range danger zone marked by lighted and unlighted buoys, extends north-northeast from Mōkapu Point. (See 33 CFR 334.1380 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(854) Ulupa‘u Crater part of an old crater rim, is a rocky headland at the northeast end of Mōkapu Peninsula. Mokumanu Islands two islets with vertical sides 202 feet and 132 feet high, are 0.7 mile north of the headland. The passage between the islets and the peninsula has midchannel depths of 3½ to 8½ fathoms, but is not recommended for strangers. An east current is reported in the vicinity of Mokumanu Islands.

(855) The beach between Mōkapu Peninsula and Makapu‘u Point, 10 miles to the southeast, is mostly low and sandy, with black rocks showing in some places. Between the beach and the cliffs of the Ko‘olau Range is a narrow strip of land developed with residential communities. The cliffs are characteristic of Ko‘olau Range from behind Kāne‘ohe Bay to rugged Makapu‘u Head.

(856) Mōkōlea Rock is about 1 mile off the southeast side of Mōkapu Peninsula; the black rock is 20 feet high, has a submerged edge that extends 0.15 mile west, and has depths of 6 to 8 fathoms around it.

(857) Kailua Bay south of Mōkapu Peninsula, is an open bight which affords no shelter from the trades. The north part of the bay is free of the usual fringing reefs, and there is a sand beach at the head of the bay.

(858) Alāla Point on the south side of Kailua Bay, is a low bluff with a 25-foot white stone monument that resembles a lighthouse. A public launching ramp is on the west side of the point.

(859) Popoi‘a Island is a small, flat, low-lying island 0.2 mile north of Alāla Point.

(860) Mokulua Islands 0.7 mile from shore and midway between Mōkapu Peninsula and Makapu‘u Head, are steep, rocky, grass covered, and locally known as Twin Peaks. Elevations are 206 feet for the north islet and 182 feet for the south islet. On the shore side of the islets is an extensive reef; between the reef and the shore is a small-boat passage that leads to private landings.

(861) 
 Chart 19358

(862) Wailea Point 5 miles northwest of Makapu‘u Head, is the northwest point of Waimānalo Bay. An inactive airfield occupies a large area south of the point.

(863) Waimānalo Bay between Wailea Point and Makapu‘u Head, affords all-weather shelter for small craft behind the barrier reefs that parallel much of the bay’s shore. A 2-mile stretch off midbay has no fringing coral reef; in its south part, the reef gets closer to shore and disappears near Makapu‘u Head. Depths of 10 feet can be carried into the bay except during strong trades when the entrance is closed by breakers. Waimānalo is on the coastal highway that skirts the head of the bay.

(864) Mānana Island 361 feet high, is 1 mile north-northwest of Makapuu Point Light. The island is part of an old crater and has a lighter shade of rock than any other in the vicinity. The sides are bluff except on the west where there is a short sloping point. The water is deep on the seaward side of Mānana Island, and there are depths of 4 fathoms between the island and the mainland; the 4-fathom passage is not recommended for strangers.

(865) Kāohikaipu Island 80 feet high, is a flat, black mass of rock midway between Mānana Island and Makapu‘u Head. A double rock, 10 feet high, is 200 yards northeast of Kāohikaipu Island and a small black rock, barely above water, is about the same distance southwest of the island. There are depths of 5 fathoms between Mānana and Kāohikaipu Islands, but passage is not recommended for strangers because reefs make off from both islands. Depths are 4 to 6 fathoms in the bight between Kaohikaipu Island and Makapu‘u Head; passage is not recommended.

(866) About 1.2 miles northwest of Makapu‘u Point is a privately operated ocean research facility. An L-shaped pier, protected by a breakwater, extends 700 feet into the bay. In 2000, the basin and channel leading to the facility had a reported depth of 12 feet. The channel and basin are privately marked by daybeacons. A restricted area of the Makai Undersea Test Range extends about 2.5 miles offshore. (See 33 CFR 334.1410 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(867) 
 Chart 19380

(868) Kaua‘i Channel northwest of O‘ahu, is wide, deep, and clear. During the trades the current usually sets west across the channel and divides at Kaua‘i, part following the north side of the island and the other part following the south side. Strong south or southwest winds cause the current to set in the opposite direction to that produced by the trades.

(869) 
 Chart 19381

(870) Kaua‘i 63 miles northwest across Kaua‘i Channel from O‘ahu, has an area of 555 square statute miles and is fourth largest of the eight major islands. Kaua‘i measures 29 nautical miles east-west by 23 miles north-south and slopes from centrally located Kawaikini a 5,170-foot peak. Lihue the seat of Kauai County, is 2 miles inland from the east-coast port of Nāwiliwili.

(871) The mountains on the west and north sides of Kaua‘i descend in steep, jagged ridges; the gentle slopes on the east and south sides are cut by numerous gulches. The peaks are nearly always cloud covered, making them difficult to see from any great distance. Dome-shaped Haupu 2,290 feet high, is prominent in the southeast part of the island. The entire northwest coast is backed by high bluffs; the rest of the coast is mostly low and rocky with some scattered sand beaches. A low coastal plain extends west from the town of Waimea. The few outlying dangers can be avoided by giving the coast a berth of 2 miles.

(872) 
 Harbors and ports
(873) Nāwiliwili, on the east coast, and Port Allen, on the south coast, are the only commercial harbors on Kaua‘i and are the only places that afford shelter in almost all weather.

(874) Small craft planning to visit Kaua‘i should carry two good holding anchors, because mooring space is scarce and there are few well-protected anchorages. Advance arrangements with the Kaua‘i District Manager, Harbors Division of the Hawaii Department of Transportation, are advised.

(875) 
 Currents
(876) The oceanic currents in the vicinity of Kaua‘i generally follow the winds. The available local information relative to currents is given in the discussions of the various localities.

(877) Weather, Kaua‘i
(878) The trade winds divide on the east side of Kaua‘i, one part follows the north coast and one part the south coast, and unite again some distance west of the island. On the west side, between Mānā Point and Mākaha Point, calm or light variable airs prevail. A moderate southwest wind is sometimes felt at Waimea Bay, while a strong east wind is blowing about 2 miles (4 km) offshore. Along the north and south shores the early morning trade wind is usually light until about 0900 and again decreases in strength about 1600. Occasionally kona winds, starting in the southeast, displace the normal trades; this condition occurs more often during the winter.

(879) The east and north, or windward, sides of the island are noted for their heavy rainfall, which reaches a maximum yearly average of more than 400 inches (10160 mm) on 5,080-foot-high (1550 m) Wai‘ale‘ale. The lower slopes have much less rain, and along the south side the fall seldom exceeds 20 inches. The winter, from December to March, produces the strongest winds, which sometimes reach gale force and are accompanied by more rain than is usual at other times of the year. Precipitation averages over 42 inches (1067 mm) at the Lihue airport and has ranged from 74.4 inches (1890 mm) in 1982 to 16.4 inches (417 mm) the very next year. Precipitation falls, on average, 275 days each year. December is the wettest month and June, the driest.

(880) The National Weather Service office located at the Lihue Airport has an average annual temperature of 75.6°F (24.2°C). The average maximum is 81.1°F (27.3°C) while the average minimum is 69.7°F (20.9°C). Annual extremes are 90°F (32.2°C) recorded in August 1981, September 1993 and 1995, and October 1957, and 50°F (10°C) recorded in January 1969. August is the warmest month with an average temperature of 79.3°F (26.3°C) while January and February each have an average temperature of 71.6°F (22°C).

(881) (See Appendix B for Lihue climatological table.)

(882) 
 Supplies and repairs
(883) Food supplies are obtainable at the various towns on the island, particularly at Lihue, the county seat. Marine supplies are limited to small-craft requirements and occasionally must be ordered from Honolulu. Fuel and water are available at Nāwiliwili and Port Allen; limited bunker C oil is available at Port Allen. The island has no repair facilities for medium or large vessels, but minor repairs can be made at Nāwiliwili and Port Allen.

(884) 
 Communications
(885) Port Allen and Nāwiliwili are ports for a few interisland barges and transpacific vessels. Interisland passenger traffic is by air. Telephone communication is available to the other islands and to the mainland. A good highway skirts the island except on the northwest side.

(886) 
 Chart 19383

(887) Nāwiliwili Bay on the southeast side of Kaua‘i, has an entrance width of 0.8 mile between Carter and Ninini Points and an inland extent of about 1 mile. Nāwiliwili on the north side of the bay, is one of the two commercial deepwater ports on Kaua‘i and is protected by a breakwater, marked at the end by a light, extending northeast from Carter Point, and by a jetty in the inner harbor. Southeast winds produce some surge, but the harbor is otherwise secure.


(889) 
 Prominent features
(890) The shore consists of rocky bluffs, except at the mouth of Huleia Stream and in the vicinity of Nāwiliwili. The jagged, mountainous coast extending southwest from the bay is in marked contrast with the lowlands of Huleia Stream, on the southwest side of the bay, and affords a means of fixing the entrance from well offshore. A water tank on the wharf and a large white bulk sugar warehouse on the hill overlooking the wharf are conspicuous.

(891) A flashing amber warning light, privately maintained and shown about 4 feet above the roof on the southwest corner of the shed (largest shed on the north piers) on Pier 2, is activated when there is a gas leak or the likelihood thereof. Anyone observing the light flashing should remain well clear and upwind, and sources of ignition should be secured.

(892) Ninini Point on the north side of the entrance, is low, flat, and rocky, and is backed by land planted in cane. A rocky ledge with a depth of 12 feet at the outer end extends about 100 yards south of the point. Nawiliwili Harbor Light (21°57'18"N., 159°20'09"W.), 110 feet above the water, is shown from a 73-foot buff-colored cylindrical concrete tower on the point. The loom of the light is frequently seen by vessels 40 miles away. Lihue Airport is along the coast, north of the light.

(893) Kukii Point 0.7 mile west of Ninini Point and the north entrance point of the inner harbor, is a high bluff with a low, rocky shelf at the base. There is a light on the point.

(894) Carter Point on the south side of the entrance to Nāwiliwili Bay, is rocky and rises rapidly to Kalanipuu; the hill is marked by an aviation obstruction light 799 feet high. The mountain spur that extends inland rises to Haupu, the most prominent feature of southeast Kaua‘i.

(895) Kawai Point 0.5 mile south of Carter Point, is a bold rocky headland, 525 feet high, very irregular and jagged in appearance.

(896) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(897) The lines established for Nawiliwili Harbor are described in 33 CFR 80.1450 chapter 2.

(898) 
 Channels
(899) A Federal project provides for an entrance channel which leads between the outer end of the breakwater and Kukii Point, thence turns southwest before entering the harbor basin. The Federal project depths are 40 feet in the entrance channel and 35 feet in the harbor basin. The entrance channel is marked by lights, buoys, and a lighted range.

(900) 
 Anchorage
(901) Anchorage in the vicinity of Nāwiliwili Bay, outside the breakwater, is not recommended. Commercial vessels are not allowed to anchor within the harbor basin, except by permission from the harbormaster. Swinging room is limited. An anchorage area for small boats is within the mouth of Huleia Stream adjacent to the small boat harbor basin.

(902) A special anchorage is north of the Nawiliwili Small-Boat Harbor. (See 33 CFR 110.1 and 110.128c chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(903) 
 Regulated navigation area
(904) A Safety Zone is in Nawiliwili Harbor, north of the small-boat harbor. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40 and 165.14-1414 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(905) 
 Caution
(906) Generally, the current offshore of Ninini Point is from north to south. However, deep-draft vessels have reported a northerly set as they get closer to the point, while on the range line. The transit of the entrance into Nawiliwili Harbor is difficult for large vessels in all but calm weather. The turn around the outer breakwater, then immediately turning in the opposite direction around the inner jetty, is made difficult by the combined effects of the winds and seas. Vessels must contend with large quartering swells and brisk tradewinds on the stern, while approaching the outer breakwater. While turning around the inner jetty into the main basin, the fresh tradewinds generally are on the beam. Local pilots require an assist tug to escort all medium to large size vessels inbound and outbound from Nāwiliwili. Vessels berthing at pier 3 are advised to consider laying out an anchor to assist in undocking during moderate to heavy tradewinds weather conditions.

(907) Pilotage, Nāwiliwili
(908) Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign vessels and for U.S. vessels under register in the foreign trade; it is optional for coastwise vessels who have on board a pilot licensed by the Federal government.

(909) Pilots are available through the Hawaii Pilots Association. Mariners are requested to give 24 hours advance notice of arrival, gross tonnage, length, and draft of vessel by telephone (808–537–4169) or by e-mail at dispatch@hawaiipilots.net. The 31-foot long pilot boat NININI has a black hull with yellow superstructure and displays the word ‘PILOTS’ in large white letters on the sides of the cabin. The pilot boat displays the International Code Flag ‘H’ by day and shows the standard pilot lights at night, white over red. The pilot boat monitors VHF-FM channels 12 and 16 and can be reached by “NAWILIWILI PILOTS”. Additionally, vessels are requested to rig a pilot ladder 1 meter above the water on the leeward side. The pilot boarding area is 1.5 miles east-southeast of Ninini Point Light. The boarding area is generally very rough, open sea conditions. Vessel masters are advised that boarding a pilot in these conditions may take some time. They should not allow their vessel to stand in towards shore west of Ninini Point until a local pilot is on the bridge.

(910) 
 Towage
(911) Two tugs are available for hire based in Nawiliwili Harbor. Local pilots advise which combination of tugs is necessary for safe transit of ships.

(912) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration, and agricultural quarantine
(913) (See chapter 3, Vessel Arrival Inspections, and Appendix A for addresses.)

(914) Quarantine is enforced in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service. (See Public Health Service, chapter 1.) A private hospital is at Lihue.

(915) Nāwiliwili is a customs port of entry.

(916) 
 Harbor regulations
(917) Harbor regulations are established by the Harbors Division of the Hawaii Department of Transportation and enforced by the harbormaster.

(918) The harbor has a security zone when the fuel barge is in port, generally each Friday to Saturday. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40 chapter 2, for regulations.)

(919) The speed limit in the harbor is 5 m.p.h.

(920) 
 Wharves
(921) The State of Hawaii, Nawiliwili Piers 1 and 2 (21°57'15"N., 159°21'18"W.): 1,285 feet of berthing space with a depth of 35 feet alongside and deck height of 8.8 feet; receipt and shipment of conventional and containerized general cargo; receipt of petroleum products, cement, and bulk fertilizer; shipment of bulk raw sugar and molasses; owned and operated by the State of Hawaii.

(922) The State of Hawaii, Nawiliwili Pier 3 (21°57'07"N., 159°21'31"W.): 627 feet of berthing space with a depth of 35 feet alongside and a deck height of 8 feet; receipt and shipment of conventional and containerized general cargo and automobiles; receipt of liquefied petroleum gas, lumber, and dry bulk fertilizer; owned and operated by the State of Hawaii.

(923) 
 Supplies
(924) Gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, and diesel fuel are available by tank truck, and water is piped to the pier. Some provisions and supplies are available at Lihue. Marine supplies are limited to items for small craft.

(925) 
 Repairs
(926) There are no facilities available at Nāwiliwili for making major repairs or for drydocking large, deep-draft vessels. Several machine, electrical, and welding concerns off the waterfront in Nāwiliwili and in Honolulu are available for making above-waterline repairs to vessels berthed at the port.

(927) Nawiliwili Small-Boat Harbor is on the southwest side of Nawiliwili Harbor. Two jetties protect the harbor and are marked by lights on the outer ends at the entrance. Private lights mark the channel inside the harbor. The harbor has three piers, 85 berths, a launching ramp on the north side of the harbor, and a pump-out station. In 2003-2011, the controlling depth was 9 feet in the entrance and basin; thence in 2003, 7 feet in the channel along the south side of the harbor.

(928) 
 Chart 19381

(929) Kawelikoa Point 4 miles southwest of Nāwiliwili Bay, is a dark, rocky headland 691 feet high. The point is at the seaward end of a ridge which extends north to a 2,297-foot-high peak of Haupu.

(930) From about 1.5 miles southwest of Kawelikoa Point to Hanapēpē Bay, the coast is a series of low bluffs and beaches; the back country is mostly under cultivation, and the cane fields extend well up the slopes in some places.

(931) Makawehi Bluff 3.5 miles southwest of Kawelikoa Point, stands on the east side of Shipwreck Beach. The beach extends for 0.25 mile and fronts a conspicuous hotel with distinctive green roofs.

(932) Makahuena Point 7 miles southwest of Nāwiliwili Bay, is the south extremity of Kaua‘i. The low, flat point has a rocky shore with bluffs 20 to 50 feet in height. The land near the point is sandy and rolling, and there are short stretches of sand beach both northeast and west of the point. A hotel is prominent on the west side of the point. Makahuena Point Light (21°52'08"N., 159°26'39"W.), 80 feet above the water, is shown from a 17-foot pole with a black and white diamond-shaped daymark on the point. The bottom slopes gradually to a depth of 7 fathoms about 0.5 mile off the point. Several reefs extend about 300 yards offshore between the point and Kōloa Landing.

(933) There is a conspicuous mill stack at Kōloa 2 miles inland from Makahuena Point. The stack is visible all along this coast except for the short distance where it is hidden by Paa Cones which are on a long, low ridge that extends inland from the point.

(934) Kōloa Landing 1.5 miles west of Makahuena Point, has a landing slip for small, flat-bottom boats and outrigger canoes. The landing slip is treacherous, and only persons familiar with the landing should attempt to land a small boat. Anchorage is available in depths of 12 fathoms, rocky bottom, about 400 yards south of the landing. A road leads inland to Kōloa.

(935) Kuhio Park is 0.5 mile west of Kōloa Landing and on the shore road. There are several beach houses between the landing and the park.

(936) Kukuiula Bay 3 miles west of Makahuena Point, has an entrance width of 150 yards and an inland extent of 300 yards. There is a small boat harbor with ramp and moorings; considerable protection is afforded except in south winds. A wreck (21°52'54"N., 159°29'36"W.), covered 25 feet, is about 0.3 mile south of the breakwater. Kukuiula is a settlement at the head of the bay. About 500 yards west of Kukuiula is the Spouting Horn a seawater spout which is active even in smooth weather.

(937) Lawai Bay 3.5 miles west of Makahuena Point, has an entrance width of 300 yards and an inland extent of 0.2 mile; fair protection is afforded small craft except in south winds. The side shores of the bay are low and rocky, but there is a wide sand beach at the head. A grass-topped rock, 70 feet high, stands at the upper edge of the sand on the west side of the bay.

(938) Makaokahai Point 4.6 miles west of Makahuena Point, is easily recognized because of the several hills extending north from it. One particularly prominent hill, 0.5 mile inland, is 436 feet high and well rounded, has canefields on the lower slopes, and is evenly capped with trees. The first low hills on the point are the walls of a water-filled crater.

(939) Ioleau 1.1 miles north of Makaokahai Point, is a flat-topped 625-foot hill. A Vortac station on the hill is a good landmark.

(940) Kalanipuao Rock with 2 feet of water over it, is about 0.3 mile southeast of Makaokahai Point and is marked by a buoy. Vessels should not attempt to pass north of the buoy.

(941) Koheo Point 1.4 miles west of Makaokahai Point, is level and covered with vegetation. A radio tower is on the west side of the point. A radar tower (21°53'38"N., 159°33'09"W.), on the grounds of the Kauai Coffee plantation, is the most conspicuous landmark on the south shore and is visible from Makahuena Point.

(942) 
 Chart 19382

(943) Wahiawa Bay 2.8 miles west of Makaokahai Point and 1 mile east of Port Allen, is 170 yards wide at the entrance and indents the coast about 0.2 mile. Excellent protection is afforded small craft in all but south winds. Boats anchor in depths of 5 to 10 feet, sandy bottom. The sides of the bay are rocky. The seas usually break over the shoal 100 yards off Weli Point on the southeast side of the bay.

(944) Hanapēpē Bay midway along the south coast of Kaua‘i, is the approach to Port Allen. The bay is about 0.6 mile wide and about 0.4 mile long, and is protected from the southeast by a breakwater marked near the end by a light. The shores are low, rocky bluffs except at the head of the bay, where there is a sandy beach.

(945) 
 Local magnetic disturbance
(946) Differences of as much as 2¼° from normal variation have been observed at Hanapēpē Bay.

(947) 
 Prominent features
(948) The east side of the bay has several oil tanks and warehouses. A light is on low, flat, and rocky Puolo Point on the west side of the bay. A landing strip, used by tour helicopters and occasionally small planes, is back of the point.

(949) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(950) The lines established for Port Allen Harbor are described in 33 CFR 80.1440 chapter 2.

(951) 
 Channels
(952) A Federal project provides for an entrance channel which leads north past the outer end of the breakwater to a harbor basin in Hanapēpē Bay with a project depth of 35 feet in the entrance channel and basin. The harbor basin is marked by lighted and unlighted buoys on the north and west sides.

(953) 
 Dangers
(954) A reef extends about 200 yards from the shore east of the inner end of the breakwater. In heavy weather breakers extend 350 yards offshore on the northwest side of the bay and 50 to 150 yards off the southeast side of Puolo Point.

(955) 
 Anchorage
(956) There is little shelter for vessels intending to anchor off Port Allen. In order for a vessel to get in the lee of the bluffs, located on the east shore, the vessel would be positioned dangerously close to shallow water near the breakwater. Fresh tradewinds generally make this area a poor anchorage. The harbor is congested with small commercial charter boats. There is little swinging room within the basin. Port Allen is known for surge conditions. At times, the surge is severe enough to discourage commercial vessels from mooring at the south face of the main pier.

(957) 
 Regulated navigation area
(958) A Safety Zone is in the waters of Port Allen surrounding the State pier. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40 and 165.14-1414 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(959) 
 Currents
(960) The prevailing current off Puolo Point is W.

(961) Pilotage, Port Allen
(962) Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign vessels and U.S. vessels under register in the foreign trade; it is optional for coastwise vessels who have on board a pilot licensed by the Federal government. The pilot boat, IWA, is a yellow 35-foot catamaran with the word PILOT in black letters on the side of the cabin. The boat displays the International Code flag “H” by day and the white and red signal lights at night. The pilot boarding area is 1.5 miles west-southwest of the harbor entrance. The pilots monitor and use VHF-FM channel 12. Mariners are advised to give at least 24 hours advance notice of arrival with overall length, gross tonnage, and draft of vessel; telephone 808–537–4169. Vessels are requested to rig a ladder no more than one meter on the lee side and to maintain a “dead slow ahead” speed, between 5 and 10 knots.

(963) 
 Towage
(964) Two tugs from Nawiliwili Harbor are available to service vessels entering and exiting Port Allen.

(965) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration, and agricultural quarantine
(966) (See chapter 3, Vessel Arrival Inspections, and Appendix A for addresses.)

(967) Quarantine is enforced in accordance with regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service. (See Public Health Service, chapter 1.) A private hospital is at Waimea.

(968) Port Allen is a customs port of entry.

(969) 
 Harbor regulations
(970) Harbor regulations are established by the Hawaii Department of Transportation, Harbors Division and enforced by the harbormaster.

(971) The harbor has a security zone when the fuel barge is in port, regularly scheduled for every Monday. (See 33 CFR 165.1 through 165.40 chapter 2, for regulations.)

(972) The speed limit in the harbor is 5 m.p.h.


(974) 
 Wharves
(975) The State pier in the east part of the harbor provides 600 feet of berthing space along both the north and south sides, and 124 feet along the west face. In 1999, depths to 25 feet were available along the north side, 33 feet on the south side and 28 feet on the west face; deck height, 11 feet. A transit shed with 24,000 square feet of covered storage space, and open storage are available. Pipelines are on the wharf, and bulk handling and storage facilities for molasses, liquid fertilizer, and petroleum products are in the port. General cargo, and barge and tanker traffic are handled at the pier.

(976) Vessels are advised to drop an anchor when approaching the pier. This assists in maneuvering to a berth as well as getting away in an emergency. During and after strong winds some surge is experienced at the pier. This condition may require small and medium craft to cast off and sometimes interferes with the cargo handling of large vessels.

(977) 
 Supplies
(978) Gasoline, fuel oil, and diesel fuel are available by tank truck, and water is piped to the wharf. Provisions are available in the principal towns on the island. Marine supplies are limited to small-craft items.

(979) 
 Repairs
(980) Facilities for minor repairs to vessels are available.

(981) Port Allen Small Boat Harbor is north of the State pier on the east side of the bay. The harbor has 3 launching ramps, 38 berths, 6 mooring buoys, and a small pier.

(982) 
 Communications
(983) Port Allen has highway and telephone communication with other parts of the island and radiotelephone and air communication with the other islands of the group. The town is a port of call for interisland barge and transpacific vessels.

(984) 
 Chart 19386

(985) Kaumakani is 2 miles northwest of Puolo Point and a half mile inland. A mill stack is prominent.

(986) Robinson Landing 1 mile northwest of Kaumakani, is a small-boat harbor with a dredged entrance that accommodates drafts of 2 to 4 feet. A stone wall has been built around the harbor edges, and a marine railway is available for handling small craft. This is a private landing and cannot be used without the owner’s permission.

(987) Hoanuanu Bay 2 miles northwest of Kaumakani, has depths of 2 to 3 fathoms and affords good protection from trade winds for small craft. The east side of the bay is rocky; the northwest side is a sand beach.

(988) A breaking area extends 0.5 mile off Poo Point which is on the northwest side of Hoanuanu Bay.

(989) Waimea Bay an open bight 3 miles northwest of Kaumakani, is the approach to Waimea which is the place where Captain James Cook, R.N., made his first (January 1778) landing in the islands.

(990) A naval anchorage is off Waimea Bay. (See 33 CFR 110.1 and 110.237 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.) Good anchorage, for other vessels, can be found in and off Waimea Bay during ordinary weather in depths of 3 to 20 fathoms, sand bottom. Small boats usually shift anchorage to Hoanuanu Bay for better protection when the trades are strong. Depths of 5 to 18 feet extend 0.3 mile from the shore of Waimea Bay. The Waimea pier, 0.3 mile northwest of the Waimea River, is a former inter-island steamer landing that is used as a state recreational pier, primarily for fishing. The town has a hospital.

(991) Waimea River which empties into Waimea Bay along the east side of Waimea, is navigable only for pulling boats because of the bar across the mouth; the river descends from the mountains through the deepest gorge on this part of Kaua‘i. The ruins of a Russian fort are on the east side of the river’s mouth; the fort was built in 1815 and abandoned in 1817.

(992) Between Waimea River and ‘Ō‘ōmanō Point 2.3 miles to the west, a reef extends 0.4 mile from shore and breaks in heavy weather. Kikiaola Boat Harbor 1.6 miles west of the river, is entered over the reef and is protected by breakwaters. The end of the west breakwater is marked by a privately maintained light. The harbor has a launching ramp and loading piers. Caution should be exercised when entering or leaving the harbor due to the combined effects of the breakers and the 90° turn in the basin.

(993) 
 Chart 19381

(994) A low plain, about 2 miles wide, extends west from Waimea River around Kokole Point and north to Barking Sands beyond Nohili Point. The shore side of the plain has a growth of algaroba trees, behind which are occasional sand dunes.

(995) Kekaha is a plantation settlement on the northwest side of ‘Ō‘ōmanō Point and 2.5 miles from Waimea River. A mill stack is prominent.

(996) Kokole Point 5 miles west-northwest of Waimea River, is low, rounding, and wooded. Kokole Light (21°58'44"N., 159°45'22"W.), 58 feet above the water, is shown from a three-legged tower with a black and white diamond-shaped daymark on the point. The transmitting antenna of Radio Station WWVH (National Bureau of Standards) is about 0.7 mile northwest of Kokole Light.

(997) Mānā Point about 3.5 miles north of Kokole Point, is the west extremity of the island. Along the water’s edge is a strip of sand that extends 2 miles on either side of the point, but the sea breaks on a lava ledge at the edge of the sand, making the beaching of boats dangerous except when the sea is smooth. The aviation control tower at Barking Sands Pacific Missile Range Facility Airport is prominent.

(998) Current observations taken during a 24-hour period 0.5 mile off Mānā Point show a tidal current of 0.8 knot velocity at strength setting south and north along the coast. The south maximum occurs about 3 hours after low water at Honolulu, and the north maximum 3 hours after high water. Similar observations taken near the coast about 3.8 miles north-northeast of Nohili Point show a tidal current with velocities generally less than 0.5 knot. Discolored water, caused by the drainage canals and the undertow from the beach, is often noted as far as 2 miles off Mānā and Kokole Points.

(999) 
 Safety zone
(1000) A safety zone extends northward from Mānā Point to Polihale. (See 33 CFR 165.1406 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)safety zone

(1001) 
 Danger zone
(1002) A danger zone is between Kokole Point and Nohili Point. (See 33 CFR 334.1390 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(1003) Nohili Point about 6 miles north of Kokole Point, is marked by Nohili Dune 100 feet high, and the highest and southernmost of a chain of sand dunes extending along the coast for 2.5 miles to the northeast. The dunes are known as Barking Sands. A road continues to Polihale. A light is on the point.

(1004) A narrow sand shoal, with depths of 7 to 10 fathoms, extends from Nohili Point to Alapi‘i Point 7.5 miles to the northeast. The shoal, which appears to be a succession of east-west sand ridges, is 1 to 2 miles from shore. A depth of 3 fathoms is 0.5 mile west of Alapi‘i Point; from there to Kailiu Point, 7 miles farther to the northeast, the 15-fathom curve is at an average distance of 1 mile from shore. A navy aerolight and radar dome antenna are about 2.5 miles southwest of Alapi‘i Point, and a conspicuous radar dome antenna is on top of a high ridge about 3 miles east-southeast of Alapi‘i Point.

(1005) From Barking Sands northeast to Kailiu Point, the coast is rocky and precipitous. The section between Alapi‘i and Kailiu Points consists of a series of cliffs known as Nāpali. These cliffs are 2,000 feet high in some places, and are cut up by numerous streams which form small waterfalls. The south part of this section is practically bare, but the north part is wooded.

(1006) Kalalau Valley 2.5 miles northeast of Alapi‘i Point, is the broadest and deepest valley along the northwest coast and is easily distinguished from seaward.

(1007) Kailiu Point on the north coast of Kaua‘i, is the seaward end of a jagged ridge that ends abruptly in a sharp peak 1,200 feet high. There is a narrow strip of lowland at the point.

(1008) 
 Chart 19385

(1009) Hā‘ena Point 1.2 miles east of Kailiu Point, is low and rounding. A reef, which bares at low water, extends 0.3 mile northwest from the point. The Haena Caves which cannot be seen from seaward, are 0.2 mile inland under the bold face of the mountains; the caves are near the west end of the highway that skirts the north shore of Kaua‘i.

(1010) Wainiha Bay 1.3 miles east of Hā‘ena Point, has an entrance width of 0.5 miles between the extensive Kepuhi Pointreef on the west and Kolokolo Point on the east; inland extent is 0.4 mile. The bay is an open bight that affords little protection except in kona weather. Wainiha River empties into the head of the bay from the most west of the deep valleys along the north coast of Kaua‘i.

(1011) Lumaha‘i River which is unnavigable, empties into the sea on the east side of Kolokolo Point; east of the river mouth is a sandy beach with a few rocky patches.

(1012) Makahoa Point 2 miles east-southeast of Hā‘ena Point, is black and rocky. A half mile inland is Puu Ka Manu, a 714-foot hill.

(1013) Hanalei Bay has an entrance width of a mile between Makahoa Point on the west and the extensive Puu Poa Point reef on the northeast; inland extent is nearly a mile. Breaking coral reefs fringe the shores on both sides of the entrance. Seas break across the entire entrance during north or northwest gales. During the winter and spring, the entire bay is subject to high surf, but when the sea is calm good protection is afforded from the trades. Midbay anchorage is in depths of 6 fathoms, sandy bottom.

(1014) Along the sandy beach at the head of Hanalei Bay are clumps of ironwood and coconut trees and the houses of Hanalei. The highway is close to the shore. Three miles inland the mountains attain heights of more than 4,000 feet.

(1015) Hanalei River which empties into the east side of the bay, is navigable for shallow-draft boats for a distance of 2 or 3 miles. A privately dredged channel passes close to the reef on the northeast side of the bay and leads to the river mouth. At high water, a depth of 4½ feet can be carried over the bar at the mouth and about 4 feet to the bridge 1.8 miles above the mouth. A launching ramp is on the south side of the river, 0.1 mile above the mouth. A clump of ironwood trees is prominent on the north side of the river’s mouth.

(1016) Overhead power and telephone cables with a clearance of 27 feet cross Hanalei River at its mouth.

(1017) A 300-foot long concrete pier, used as a shore recreation site for swimming and fishing, is on the east side of the bay and 200 yards south of the Hanalei River. A prominent large resort complex is on the bluff on the north side of the river near the entrance.

(1018) Waioli Stream and Waipa Stream which empty into the head of Hanalei Bay, are not navigable.

(1019) Puu Poa Point on the east side of Hanalei Bay, is a bluff about 50 feet high, back of which a green ridge extends inland.

(1020) From offshore the north side of Kaua‘i presents a very irregular and jagged skyline, with ridges extending in all directions. In the northwest part of the island these ridges often end abruptly at the sea. The mountains are heavily wooded. The coast between Hanalei and Kalihiwai Bays is a series of more or less wooded bluffs cut up by gulches back of which a rolling plain extends to the mountains. Between the shore and the highway, l mile inland, is a resort community with homes, condominiums, and golf courses.

(1021) Anini Beach to the west of Kalihiwai Bay, is a long stretch of sandy beach with a boat ramp.

(1022) Kalihiwai Bay 4.5 miles east of Hanalei Bay, is about 0.5 mile wide and is a popular surfing site. Kapukaamoi Point a red precipitous bluff about 150 feet high, is on the east side of the entrance. Several houses are scattered along the sand beach at the head of the bay, which is backed by a wooded gulch. Indifferent anchorage, with poor holding ground, can be found in depths of 5 fathoms in the center of the bay, but a heavy swell sets in during north winds. A rock awash is 150 yards north of Kapukaamoi Point. A reef, 0.2 mile wide and bare at low water, fringes the shore for 2.5 miles west from Kalihiwai Bay, and vessels should stay at least 0.8 mile offshore. A shore road, with beach houses along it, extends west from the bay for 1.5 miles.

(1023) Kīlauea Point the north extremity of Kaua‘i, is a grass-covered bluff about 165 feet high. Kilauea Point Light (22°13'53"N., 159°24'07"W.), 174 feet above the water, is shown from a white concrete pole. Mokuaeae Island 200 yards off Kīlauea Point, is a black, flat, grass-topped rock about 200 yards in diameter and 92 feet high. The island is the most prominent feature in the vicinity to coasting vessels.

(1024) Kīlauea 1.3 miles inland from Kīlauea Point, is the site of a sugarmill, but is not easily seen when close to the shore. The sugar of the district is trucked to Nāwiliwili for shipment.

(1025) Between Kīlauea Point and Mōkōlea Point the coast is bluff, rising gradually from each point to an elevation of about 570 feet midway between them.

(1026) Makapili Rock 0.8 mile southeast of Kīlauea Point, is 156 feet high, black, and prominent. The rock is on the outer end of a narrow neck of land that juts out 200 yards from the general coastline.

(1027) Mōkōlea Point 1.2 miles southeast of Kīlauea Point, is narrow and 140 feet high, and projects out 0.3 mile from the general coastline. The point is on the northwest side of Kīlauea Bay and has two old buildings near its outer end. An abandoned rock quarry is on the east side of the point.

(1028) Kīlauea Bay has an entrance width of 0.5 mile and an inland extent of 0.5 mile. The bay is subject to high surf, especially in the winter and spring. The bay is open to the trades, but offers some protection in west weather. A narrow coral reef fringes the shore, and Kīlauea Stream empties into the head of the bay. Anchorage can be found in depths of 6 fathoms, rocky bottom, near the center of the bay.

(1029) Low Kepuhi Point is 2 miles east of Mōkōlea Point. The low coast between the two points is fringed with a narrow coral reef.

(1030) 
 Chart 19381

(1031) Moloaa Bay (22°12'N., 159°20'W.), 4.5 miles southeast of Kīlauea Point, has an entrance width of 0.3 mile and extends the same distance inland to the mouth of a gulch. Little protection is afforded from the heavy swell that sets into the bay during the trades, but anchorage is possible during south winds in depths of 3 to 6 fathoms in midbay. There are a few houses along the sand beach at the head of the bay, and rice is grown in the gulch. The interior between Moloaa and Anahola Bays is used for pineapple cultivation and for grazing.

(1032) Papaa Bay 6 miles southeast of Kīlauea Point, is a small bight that is wide open to the trades. The central part of the bay is foul, and there is a rock awash 300 yards from shore. A coral reef fringes the south shore.

(1033) Anahola Bay 7.5 miles southeast of Kīlauea Point, is a small bight exposed to the trades. Kahala Point a low bluff with a grove of ironwood trees near the outer end is on the southeast side of the bay. Kahala Point Light (22°08'48"N., 159°17'43"W.), 40 feet above the water, is shown from an 21-foot steel pole with a black and white diamond-shaped daymark on the point. A water tank 1 mile west of the light is prominent. Discolored water frequently extends for a considerable distance off Kuaehu Point on the northwest side of the bay. A reef extends about 0.3 mile from Kuaehu Point. Because of the numerous reefs, strangers should not attempt to enter the bay. In moderately smooth weather small vessels can find anchorage well inside the bay in depths of 4 to 6 fathoms, mud bottom.

(1034) Puu Konanae 1.3 miles inland from Anahola Bay, is a tall, dark spire, with green slopes, that stands out more prominently than any other land feature on this part of the island.

(1035) Between Kahala Point and Keālia are low coastal bluffs and a rocky shore with some patches of sand.

(1036) Keālia 3 miles south of Kahala Point, is a plantation village. A short breakwater, extending southeast from the shore, affords some protection from north weather for shallow-draft boats. The breakwater is not kept in repair, and portions have been carried away by the sea. Vessels should not approach the village without local knowledge. About 0.8 mile south of Keālia, and 0.3 mile inshore, the stack of the Samuel Mahelona Memorial Hospital is prominent.

(1037) Kapa‘a is 4.5 miles south of Kahala Point. A reef, which is 0.3 mile wide in some places, extends alongshore from north of Kapa‘a to Hanamā‘ulu Bay. An opening in the reef at Kapa‘a is usually marked by breakers on either side. Small craft find anchorage in depths of about 2 fathoms behind the reef and about 150 yards off the north side of the village. At Waipouli Beach Park an opening in the reef with a marked channel, and spanned by a foot bridge, leads to a sheltered boat ramp. The village of Waipouli is just south of Kapa‘a along the highway.

(1038) Wailua is a settlement at the mouth of Wailua River which empties into small Lehuawehe Bay 6.5 miles south of Kahala Point. The river, which is spanned by a bridge at its mouth, is navigable for small boats for several miles, once a shifting bar at the mouth is passed. Only very shallow draft vessels can cross the bar even at high tide, and only during calm weather. A public marina is 0.3 mile above the mouth. Vessels may find unprotected anchorage off Wailua in depths of 10 to 15 fathoms, rocky bottom, but like the whole northeast coast of the island, anchorage is not safe when the trade winds are blowing.

(1039) Nounou 1.3 miles northwest of Wailua and 1,241 feet high, is the northernmost and highest of the low mountains near the coast.

(1040) Kālepa Ridge is 1 mile inland and parallels the coast from Wailua to Hanamā‘ulu Bay. The south end of the ridge, which is about 700 feet high, is marked by several buildings high on the seaward face of the bluff. The buildings can be seen for many miles offshore and are a good leading mark for Hanamā‘ulu Bay.

(1041) 
 Chart 19384

(1042) Hanamā‘ulu Bay 10 miles south of Kahala Point and 2.6 miles north of Nāwiliwili, is about 0.3 mile wide and indents the coast about 0.5 mile. Ahukini Landing is on the point on the south side of the entrance. Only the outer third of the bay has deep water; the sand and coral bottom slopes gradually from the 18-foot curve to the beach at the head of the bay. The shores of the bay are low, rocky bluffs, about 40 feet high, except for the white sand beach at the head. A fringe of trees on the bluffs forms a windbreak for the extensive cane fields on either side of the bay. Hanamā‘ulu Stream which empties into the head of the bay, is not navigable.

(1043) The 20-foot concrete tower of an abandoned lighthouse is on the outer end of the 300-foot stone breakwater that projects from the south point of Hanamā‘ulu Bay entrance; the pilings and ruins of a small wooden pier are at the inner end of the breakwater. The bay is no longer used by large vessels. Only the concrete piling remains of the former wharf at Ahukini Landing, and most of the port installations are in ruins. A heavy outside swell causes a heavy surge in the harbor.

(1044) 
 Chart 19381

(1045) From Hanamā‘ulu Bay to Nāwiliwili the coast is a series of low bluffs with occasional stretches of sand beach; there are no off-lying dangers. Sugarcane is grown extensively on the land back of the beach. An aerolight at Lihue Airport is 0.7 mile south of Hanamā‘ulu Bay.

(1046) 
 Chart 19380

(1047) Kaulakahi Channel between Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau, is about 15 miles wide and clear of obstructions. Off Mānā Point the trade wind following the south coast of Kaua‘i meets the air current that has followed around the north side. The trades blow directly across the lowlands of Ni‘ihau, but part is deflected south and around the southeast point of the island.

(1048) 
 Currents
(1049) Little is known of the current in Kaulakahi Channel, but presumably it is variable depending mainly upon the velocity and direction of the wind. There appears to be a general northwest flow along the southwest coast of Kaua‘i. It is reported that a current sometimes sets south along the east coast of Ni‘ihau at the same time that the current is setting northwest along the Kaua‘i coast. There are noticeable tidal currents near the west extremity of Kaua‘i.

(1050) Ni‘ihau 15 miles west across Kaulakahi Channel from Kaua‘i, is seventh in size and westernmost of the eight major islands. Ni‘ihau has an area of 72 square statute miles, a northeast-southwest length of 16 nautical miles, and an average width of 3.5 miles. Near the middle of the island is a high tableland with occasional rises or cones, the highest of which is 1,281-foot Pānī‘au. The north and east ends of the tableland are precipitous and vary in height from 600 to 1,000 feet; the south and west slopes are gradual. An unpaved road follows the west coast of Ni‘ihau for most of its length. The island lies in the rain shadow of Kaua‘i and is a semi-arid island with no streams.

(1051) The population of Ni‘ihau was 230 in 1990. One family owns the entire island and operates it as a cattle ranch. There are no scheduled communications with the island.

(1052) Lehua about 0.6 mile off the north end of Ni‘ihau, is a small rocky, crescent-shaped island, with the crescent open to the north. The east and west points are low, rising gradually to an elevation of about 700 feet near the center of the island. On the west point is a natural arch. Lehua Rock Light (22°01'12"N., 160°05'51"W.), 704 feet above the water, is shown from a 10-foot post on the summit of Lehua.

(1053) Lehua Channel between Ni‘ihau and Lehua, is restricted on its south side by rocks that show above water and extend about halfway across it. A depth of 9 fathoms can be carried through the channel by staying within about 350 yards of the Lehua shore. In heavy northwest weather the swell almost breaks in the passage, and, as little is to be gained by using the channel, vessels should pass north of Lehua Island. The current through the channel varies with the tide and sets in both directions with a velocity of about 1.5 knots.

(1054) To the east of Lehua Channel vessels should give the north coast of Ni‘ihau a berth of 0.5 mile; to the west the clearance should be about 1 mile.

(1055) Pu‘ukole on the north end of Ni‘ihau, is low, as is Kīkepa Point 1 mile to the east. Between these points and the high bluff on the north side of the tableland, the land is low and grass covered, with a few low hills. From a distance this lowland is not visible and Lehua appears to be about 3.5 miles from Ni‘ihau.

(1056) Kaunuopou 1.8 miles southeast of Kīkepa Point, is the easternmost point of north i‘ihau. Kaunuopou Rocks over which the sea breaks, are 300 yards off the point. Another rock, about 0.4 mile off the south side of the point, usually breaks and should be given a good berth by vessels approaching Ki‘i.

(1057) Ki‘i (Ki‘i Landing), a small bight about 0.7 mile west of Kaunuopou, is only slightly protected from the trade winds. The landing is usable in ordinary weather, but not in south weather. The landing is built on beach boulders and has depths of only 2 or 3 feet alongside. Anchorage can be had in depths of about 8 fathoms, coral bottom, about 0.6 mile off the landing.

(1058) About 1.3 miles south of Ki‘i, a reef with about 1 fathom of water over it and usually breaking, extends 0.5 mile offshore. The 10-fathom curve is about 1 mile offshore. From the vicinity of the reef to Pueo Point the coastline consists of cliffs reaching a height of 1,000 feet.

(1059) Pueo Point 5 miles south of Kaunuopou, is a prominent brown, precipitous bluff about 800 feet high. Southwest from the point for a distance of about 4.5 miles the coastline consists of bluffs that gradually diminish in height toward the lowlands of the south half of the island. The bluffs are broken by small bights, most of which have short sand or pebble beaches where boats could land during smooth weather. Beyond the bluffs to Kawaihoa, a distance of about 6 miles, the coast consists of a series of low bluffs about 15 feet high, with stretches of sand beach, a few sand dunes, and scattered trees. Between Pueo Point and Kawaihoa are no known outlying dangers; the few isolated rocks are very close to the shore.

(1060) The lowland of the south part of the island is broken by two hills, one on Kawaihoa and the other Kāwa‘ewa‘e a gently rounded hill 315 feet high, which is 4 miles north of the cape and 1.3 miles inland from the west coast.

(1061) Kawaihoa (Kawaihoa Point) the southernmost point of Ni‘ihau, is formed by a hill 548 feet high, the seaward face of which is steep. From a distance the hill has the appearance of an island and can easily be mistaken for Ka‘ula. Deep water is close to the point. About 2 miles south of the point there is a prevailing west current which reaches a velocity of about 1.5 knots.

(1062) Beyond Kawaihoa the coast gradually curves northwest and north and is low and rocky with occasional short sand beaches. At Le‘ahi (Le‘ahi Point), 1.7 miles west of Kawaihoa, the 10-fathom curve is 0.6 mile offshore. A road skirts the west shore.

(1063) The coast between Kamalino a former village 4 miles northwest of Kawaihoa and Puu Kole, is practically one low, continuous beach, with an occasional group of rocks. Near the beach are numerous sand dunes covered with sparse vegetation. In the vicinity of Kamalino, weak currents have been reported setting north and south along the coast.

(1064) Nonopapa Landing 5.5 miles northwest of Kawaihoa, is the principal landing on the island. Local vessels call occasionally for the island’s cattle. The landing is used only from May to September, as there is often a heavy north swell during the winter. The landing is marked by a shed and derrick on a short concrete retaining wall at the north end of a long sand beach. Kā‘eo a cone 1,018 feet high and near the center of the tableland, shows on the skyline from the anchorage.

(1065) Anchorage is available in depths of 8 fathoms, coral and sand bottom, about 660 yards off the derrick, with the landing shed and Kā‘eo in range and bearing 070°. Kāwa‘ewa‘e is 1.5 miles 135° from the anchorage. The landing is somewhat protected by a small reef extending about 75 yards southwest from the end of the retaining wall. Small boats approaching the landing head south of it until the reef is rounded. Pu‘uwai the principal village of the island, is about 2.5 miles northeast of the landing.

(1066) Kuakamoku Rock 1.6 miles north of Nonopapa Landing, is a large, single rock about 4 feet above water and near the center of a reef some 200 yards in diameter and 500 yards offshore. The reef should be given a berth of 0.5 mile, and only small craft should attempt the passage between the reef and the shore. Other reefs extend about 0.5 mile offshore 0.5 mile south, and 3 miles northeast of Kuakamoku Rock.

(1067) Kaununui (Kaununui Point) 4.5 miles northeast of Kuakamoku Rock, is marked by a group of rocks a few feet high and close to the shore. A coral reef with depths of 6¼ fathoms over it is 1.5 miles off the point. It is reported that the reef breaks in heavy weather. The passage inside the reef is not recommended except for small boats.

(1068) Keawanui Bay is no more than a slight curve in the shoreline that extends northeast from Kaununui for 3 miles. The bay has a sand and coral bottom and a sandy shore. A rock with 2 feet of water over it is in the south part of the bay, 0.8 mile north of Kaununui and 0.5 mile offshore.

(1069) From the north side of the bay to Puu Kole the coast is foul for a distance of about a mile offshore. Vessels should give this section of the coast a berth of at least 1 mile. About 2 miles west of Puu Kole and 0.9 mile offshore is a reef with reported depths of 12 feet over it. A mile south of this reef and 0.8 mile offshore is a rock with 5 feet of water over it.

(1070) Ka‘ula 19 miles souhwest of Ni‘ihau, is a small, bare, rocky islet, 550 feet high. Vessels have anchored close to both the south and east sides of Ka‘ula in depths of about 20 fathoms, but as the islet is only 0.7 mile long, little protection is afforded. A rock with a least depth of 5 fathoms is 3.8 miles 300° from the highest point on Ka‘ula. A bank with depths of 30 to 40 fathoms extends 5 miles northwest from the islet.

(1071) 
 Danger zone
(1072) The danger zone of an aerial bombing and strafing target is centered on Ka‘ula. (See 33 CFR 334.1340 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(1073) 
 Chart 540

(1074) Outer Islands. The small rocky islands, reefs, and atolls west-northwest from Ni‘ihau form a well-defined chain in the Hawai‘ian Archipelago. Between Ni‘ihau and Gardner Pinnacles, 480 miles distant, are several widely separated high barren rocks; continuing west are the coral reefs and atolls.

(1075) The Hawai‘ian Archipelago from longitude 161°W. to 176°W. is part of the Hawai‘ian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of Interior. The islands and atolls in the refuge include Nihoa, Necker Island, French Frigate Shoals, Gardner Pinnacles, Maro Reef, Laysan Island, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Reef, and all intervening reefs and shoals, which are also part of the so-called Leeward Islands.

(1076) The refuge was established in 1909 in order to preserve wildlife including very rare forms, found in the area. All fish and wildlife are protected. Federal laws governing wildlife and national wildlife refuges are in force. Sharks are abundant throughout the refuge. Entry to the refuge is prohibited except by permit issued by the Refuge Manager, Hawai‘ian/Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, P.O. Box 50167, Honolulu, HI 96850. Entry upon Tern Island of French Frigate Shoals and Green Island, Kure Atoll, must be also by approval Commander, 14th U.S. Coast Guard District, Honolulu. The restrictions apply to all civilian and military agencies, as well as individuals. Because of the extreme fragilities of the refuge islands ecosystems general public use is not permitted. Entry to the entire refuge is restricted to scientists on previously U.S. Fish and Wildlife approved research projects.

(1077) The Hawai‘ian Archipelago and surrounding waters between Nihoa Island and Kure Atoll have been designated as Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument by Presidential Proclamation 8031 of June 15, 2006. Within this Monument are three areas to be noted: a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA), Areas to be Avoided, and a Ship Reporting Area. These areas are described in detail below.

(1078) Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument encompasses an area of the marine waters and submerged lands of the Northwestern Hawai‘ian Islands. The seaward boundary of the reserve is 50 miles from the approximate geographical center of Nihoa Island, Necker Island, French Frigate Shoals, Gardner Pinnacles, Maro Reef, Laysan Island, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Reef, Midway Atoll, and Kure Atoll and includes all areas of the Hawai‘ian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. (See 50 CFR 404.1 through 404.12 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(1079) The Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) is an IMO-designated zone sharing the same boundary as the Monument. The area encompasses a 1,200-mile stretch of coral islands, seamounts, banks, and shoals. It is home to more than 7,000 marine species and contains 4,500 square miles of coral reefs. Ship traffic has been identified as one of the primary anthropogenic threats to the vulnerable and valuable natural and cultural resources of the area. PSSA designation augments domestic protective measures by alerting mariners to exercise extreme caution when navigating through the area.

(1080) The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted certain Areas to be Avoided in the region of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. Given the magnitude of obstacles that make navigation in these areas hazardous and in order to increase: maritime safety, protection of the environment, preservation of cultural resources and areas of cultural importance significant to Native Hawai‘ians, and facilitate the ability to respond to developing maritime emergencies in the Monument, all ships solely in transit should avoid the following areas contained within a circle having a radius of 50 nautical miles centered upon the following geographical positions:

(1081) (1) 28°25.18'N., 178°19.75'W. (Kure Atoll)

(1082) (2) 28°14.20'N., 177°22.10'W. (Midway Atoll)

(1083) (3) 27°50.62'N., 175°50.53'W. (Pearl and Hermes Atoll)

(1084) (4) 26°03.82'N., 173°58.00'W. (Lisianski Island)

(1085) (5) 25°46.18'N., 171°43.95'W. (Laysan Island)

(1086) (6) 25°25.45'N., 170°35.32'W. (Maro Reef)

(1087) (7) 25°19.50'N., 170°00.88'W. (Between Maro Reef and Raita Bank)

(1088) (8) 25°00.00'N., 167°59.92'W. (Gardner Pinnacles)

(1089) (9) 23°45.52'N., 166°14.62'W. (French Frigate Shoals)

(1090) (10) 23°34.60'N., 164°42.02'W. (Necker Island)

(1091) (11) 23°03.38'N., 161°55.32'W. (Nihoa Island)

(1092) and the areas encompassed by the following geographical positions:

(1093) Area 1

(1094) (1) 26°53.22'N., 173°49.64'W.

(1095) (2) 26°35.58'N., 171°35.60'W.

(1096) (3) 24°57.63'N., 171°57.07'W.

(1097) (4) 25°14.42'N., 174°06.36'W.

(1098) Area 2

(1099) (1) 25°38.90'N., 167°25.31'W.

(1100) (2) 24°24.80'N., 165°40.89'W.

(1101) (3) 23°05.84'N., 166°47.81'W.

(1102) (4) 24°14.27'N., 168°22.13'W.

(1103) A mandatory Ship Reporting System (CORAL SHIPREP) has been established in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument Particularly Sensitive Sea Area for the following vessels entering or departing any U.S. port or place and in transit through the reporting area:

(1104) (1) All vessels 300 gross tons or greater

(1105) (2) All vessels experiencing an emergency in the Reporting Area

(1106) Vessels other than those described above, including sovereign immune vessels, are encouraged to participate. The current notification requirements described in 50 CFR 404.4 for U.S. flagged vessels passing through the Monument remain in effect.

(1107) The reporting area boundary adopted by the IMO (See IMO SN.1 Circ.273.) generally extends 10 miles out and entirely around the Monument boundary and includes three transit corridors through the Monument PSSA. Vessels using these corridors are asked to report only twice, once when entering the reporting area and once when leaving. These transit corridors are between the designated Areas to be Avoided around:

(1108) (1) Pearl & Hermes Atoll and Lisianski Island

(1109) (2) Maro Reef and Gardner Pinnacles

(1110) (3) Necker Island and Nihoa Island

(1111) The reporting area does not include the Areas to be Avoided within the Monument. A vessel that passes through an Area to be Avoided shall notify the shore-based authority when:

(1112) (1) entering the reporting area

(1113) (2) leaving the reporting area to enter an Area to be Avoided

(1114) (3) exiting the Area to be Avoided to enter the reporting area on the other side of the Area

(1115) (4) leaving the reporting area.

(1116) The potential burden of reporting four times is justified by the navigation hazards that exist within the Areas to be Avoided. (See 50 CFR 404-Appendix E chapter 2, for reporting requirements.)

(1117) Atolls
(1118) An atoll may comprise one or more low coral islands situated on a strip or ring of coral surrounding a central lagoon. Many of these atolls have openings in the coral ring that permit passage of small boats, and sometimes large vessels, to anchorage in the enclosed lagoon.

(1119) Reefs
(1120) Successful navigation through or among coral reefs often depends on the eye. They are always more plainly seen from the masthead than from the deck or bridge. The best observing conditions are with the sun high and behind the observer, and with the sea slightly ruffled; reefs are extremely difficult to distinguish if the sea is glassy calm.

(1121) Reefs with about 3 feet of water over them appear light brownish in color; those with a fathom or more appear light green, deepening to dark green and finally deep blue. Under favorable circumstances, a reef with depths of 3 or 4 fathoms over it can be seen from aloft for a considerable distance; in greater depths, the reef can only be seen when nearly over it. Polarized glasses have been found of great help in navigating among reefs.

(1122) Vigias
(1123) A vigia is an indication on a chart that a dangerous rock or shoal is thought to be near the spot indicated. Doubtful navigation and strong currents account for a large proportion of the vigias that encumber or have encumbered the charts of the Pacific Ocean. Phosphorescence, seaweed scum, and shoals of fish often resemble reefs and breakers so closely as to deceive the most experienced. Many vigias have been disproved by extensive investigation, but many others are still on the charts and remain a source of annoyance to the navigator.

(1124) 
 Chart 19016

(1125) Nihoa (23°03'N., 161°55'W.), a barren, rocky, and uninhabited island, is about 120 miles northwest of Ni‘ihau. The island was discovered by Captain Douglas of the British vessel IPHIGENIA on April 13, 1790. The low, stone walls of ancient Polynesian ceremonial sites still remain on the island. The island is inhabited by a number of species of sea birds and two extremely rare land birds.

(1126) Nihoa is about 0.8 mile long and 0.2 mile wide. The east, north and west sides are high and precipitous; the south side is much lower and its slopes are more gradual. Millers Peak 910 feet high and the highest point on the island, is near the northwest end. Tanager Peak 874 feet high, is near the northeast end. The southeast and soutwest sides of the island terminate at points on either side of Adams Bay. In the bay are three small bights; the westernmost has a sand beach, and the shores of the other two are rocky ledges. There is deep water, close to all sides of the island.

(1127) The safest anchorages are between the 15-and 20-fathom curves west and southwest of the island, but the holding ground is poor. The middle cove of Adams Bay probably affords the best landing, but the surge is considerable and great care must be taken in landing anywhere on the island. During heavy northwest weather landing is very dangerous. A steep trail leads from the middle cove to the top of the bluff. At the foot of the bluff is a seepage of water that is not suitable for drinking purposes except in emergencies.

(1128) 
 Currents
(1129) The prevailing current sets west in the vicinity of Nihoa. Current observations taken about 0.2 mile west of the island show a nontidal flow of about 0.2 knot setting west-southwest combined with a tidal current of nearly 0.5 knot at strength setting north and south. The north strength of the tidal current occurs about 6 hours after the local transit of the moon and the south strength at about the time of local transit. The velocity measured was nearly 2 knots and set south.

(1130) 
 Local magnetic disturbance
(1131) Differences from normal variation of as much as 33° have been observed on Nihoa.

(1132) Nihoa is near the southwest end of a bank which is about 18 miles long in a northeast-southwest direction 10 miles wide and has depths of 14 to 36 fathoms, except for a reported depth of 6½ fathoms at the westernmost extremity. Another bank, the center of which is about 18 miles west-southwest from Nihoa, is about 14 miles long in an east-west direction, 9 miles wide, and has depths of 15 to 25 fathoms, except for an 11-fathom depth about 2 miles southeast of its center, and a 14-fathom depth about 6 miles south-southeast of its center, reported in 1968. A bank about 54 miles southeast of Nihoa has a least depth of 32 fathoms except for a reported depth of 19 fathoms at its south end; the positions of the reported depths are approximate and caution is advised. The two banks 57 and 70 miles west of Nihoa have least depths of 29 and 33 fathoms, respectively. The edges of the bank slope steeply to much greater depths. A 9-fathom shoal is about 5 miles northwest of the east bank.

(1133) Necker Island (23°34'N., 164°42'W.) is 158 miles west from Nihoa. It was discovered by La Perouse on November 1, 1786, and was annexed to Hawaii in 1895. The island, which might well be called a rock, is uninhabited, but, like Nihoa, shows unmistakable evidence of ancient habitation. It is the home of countless sea birds.

(1134) About 0.7 mile long and less than 0.2 mile wide, Necker Island is made up entirely of lava. There are four peaks or hills, one near each end and two between. The highest, Summit Hill 277 feet high, is near the middle of the island. Annexation Hill 249 feet high, at the west end of the island, is separated from the other hills by a low saddle and, when seen from a distance appears detached. There is a sparse growth of low brush on the upper slopes of the hills.

(1135) Northwest Cape a rocky spur extending north from the west end of the island, is joined to the rest of the island by a low isthmus over which the seas break in rough weather. On the west side of the cape is West Cove and on the east side is Shark Bay. Off the east end of the island are several low, detached rocks. A depth of 5 fathoms has been reported 0.5 mile south of Necker Island where general depths are 10 to 12 fathoms.

(1136) Vessels can anchor in depths of about 12 fathoms 0.5 mile south of the southwest point of the island, but the island is so small that it affords little protection. West Cove and Shark Bay are the landing places, and are usually very hazardous and there are times when it is impossible to land anywhere on the island. During heavy northwest weather landing at West Cove is very dangerous. Shark Bay, open to the northeast trades, is usually filled with breakers. Small seepages of unpalatable water have been found on the island.

(1137) 
 Currents
(1138) The prevailing current sets west, but countercurrents may be expected close to the island. Four days of current observations taken 0.2 mile west-northwest of the west end of Necker Island show a west nontidal flow of about 0.5 knot, combined with a tidal current of about 0.8 knot at strength. East trade winds prevailed during the observations.

(1139) Weather, Necker Island
(1140) September is reported to be the calmest month of the year; strong north and northeast winds prevail during the other months.

(1141) 
 Local magnetic disturbance
(1142) Differences from the normal variation of as much as 22° have been observed on Necker Island.

(1143) Necker Island is near the north end of a bank about 40 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction. The bank is about 15 miles wide and has depths of 8 to 23 fathoms except for a reported 5-fathom depth 0.5 mile south of Necker Island and a 5-fathom depth reported in 1968 about 5 miles north of Necker Island. The sand and coral bottom is plainly visible. A 10-fathom shoal has been reported about 19 miles northeast of Necker Island.

(1144) 
 Charts 19401, 19402

(1145) French Frigate Shoals about 85 miles west from Necker Island, is a crescent-shaped atoll about 17 miles long in a north-northwest direction. It was discovered by La Perouse on November 6, 1786, the day after leaving Necker Island, and like that island, was annexed to Hawaii in 1895. The atoll consists of a coral reef with a number of small, bare, sand islets on it, and is flanked by a volcanic rock and numerous coral heads and reefs. It is home to many sea birds, seals, turtles and other fish and wildlife all protected by Federal Law.

(1146) La Perouse Pinnacle and Tern Island are the best landmarks. The other islands are of little assistance in navigation due to their constantly changing size and shape and low elevations. Shark Island has been observed to be particularly unreliable in this regard.

(1147) The crescent reef is double, and the outer and inner arcs bound a lagoon that is 1 to 6 miles wide. At its midpoint the windward reef lies about 8 miles from a line joining the tips of the crescent; the leeward reef is about 5 miles from this line. The windward reef is nearly continuous and can be plainly seen in the daytime for a considerable distance by vessels approaching from the north, east or southeast. The sea practically always breaks over the reef, and during the few times it is not breaking, the green shoal water inside the reef is seen in ample time to avoid danger. The bottom slopes uniformly from the reef to the 100-fathom curve 1 to 2 miles off, and there are no known dangers from north through east to south of the windward reef.

(1148) The leeward or inner reef, however, is broken in many places and in normal weather is seldom marked by breakers. The lagoon between the reefs is very foul with numerous coral heads, some just under the surface of the water.

(1149) La Perouse Pinnacle (23°46'08"N., 166°15'39"W.), a volcanic rock about 60 yards long, 20 yards wide, and 122 feet high, lies about midway between the tips of the crescent and west of the leeward arc of the reef. The rock is so steep and rugged that is almost inaccessible. From a distance its guano-coated outline resembles a brig under sail. A small detached lava rock about 9 feet high lies off the west side of the pinnacle. The points of the crescent reef, as indicated by the ends of the line of breakers, bear about 170° and 310° from La Perouse Pinnacle. La Perouse Pinnacle is reported to be the first object sighted, generally, when approaching the atoll, and that it is usually picked up on radar at 12 to 15 miles.

(1150) Shark Island the northwesternmost of the sand islets, lies 6 miles northwest of La Perouse Pinnacle. A coral reef fringes the island. Tern Island about 2 miles east-northeast of Shark Island, is marked by two 40-foot towers, low concrete buildings, a wooden telegraph pole, and four large trees. The island and buildings are visible at 8 and 5 miles, respectively. There are no facilities on the island.

(1151) East Island 3 miles east-northeast of La Perouse Pinnacle, is a low sand bar 600 yards long in a northwest direction and about 100 yards across. Reefs that are awash most of the time extend a mile west and 0.2 mile south from the island; the south reef seldom breaks. A coral head that sometimes breaks is 0.6 mile south of East Island. Northeast and east of the island are numerous coral heads and reefs.

(1152) Extreme caution must be exercised when navigating in the vicinity of these islets because of the numerous coral heads.

(1153) 
 Channels
(1154) The principal approach to Tern Island is through a natural channel that leads to a lagoon and anchorage southeast of the island. Mariners are advised that attempting entry into the lagoon requires extensive local knowledge, good sea and weather conditions, and the sound judgment to recognize when conditions allow committing the vessel to a course through the reef opening.

(1155) 
 Anchorages
(1156) The best holding ground southwest of French Frigate Shoals is in depths of 13 to 15 fathoms, sand bottom; in lesser depths the bottom is mostly coral. There are no all-weather anchorages for large vessels, but the conformation of the reef is such that some protection can be found from choppy seas and ground swell. Small vessels can find good protection from most weather behind the shoals and coral heads.

(1157) 
 Routes
(1158) Vessels approaching French Frigate Shoals from the north, east or southeast in the daytime should have no difficulty in picking out the outer reef from a considerable distance off. La Perouse Pinnacle, plainly visible from outside the reefs in clear weather, is reported to make a good radar target at 19 miles. From the south, the reef is not so easily seen. The sea may not break over the shoals, and although the bottom is plainly visible close in, the shoals might not be detected from a short distance. The 100-fathom curve is only about 0.5 mile from the shoals.

(1159) 
 Currents
(1160) A prevailing current sets west in the vicinity of French Frigate Shoals, but variable currents have been noted. A southwest current of 2 knots has been measured. A 1-day series of half-hourly current observations taken 0.7 mile west of the south end of the shoal during a period of small wind velocity shows practically no current.

(1161) Weather, French Frigate Shoals
(1162) The northeast trades prevail throughout the year, but west blows can be expected during the winter. The average wind velocity is 12 knots, with monthly averages of about 16 knots in December to 9.5 knots in August. Gales have been experienced in July and September. Occasional heavy showers of short duration cut visibility to about 2 miles (4 km).

(1163) 
 Chart 19019

(1164) Brooks Banks and St. Rogatien Bank are a group of five coral banks between French Frigate Shoals and Gardner Pinnacles. The banks extend 50 miles in a northwest direction, have depths of 11 to 59 fathoms, and are separated by channels several miles wide and more than 100 fathoms deep. The largest of these banks lies 60 miles 305° from La Perouse Pinnacle, is about 12 miles in diameter, and has depths of 12 to 56 fathoms. The southeasternmost bank, the smallest in the group, is 27 miles 297° from La Perouse Pinnacle, is about 2 miles in diameter, and has depths of 28 fathoms. The northwesternmost bank is 75 miles 311° from La Perouse Pinnacle, is about 6 miles long and 4 miles wide, and has depths of 30 to 43 fathoms.

(1165) Unprotected anchorage can be had on the shoaler areas, but the holding ground is only fair. The sand and coral bottom is plainly visible. There are no known dangers.

(1166) 
 Currents
(1167) The oceanic flow is variable, but usually sets west. Sixty half-hourly current observations indicate a northwest nontidal current of about 0.5 knot, combined with a tidal current of 0.8 knot at strength. The tidal current is somewhat rotary, turning clockwise. The largest velocity observed was nearly 1.5 knots setting west.

(1168) 
 Chart 19421

(1169) Gardner Pinnacles (25°00'N., 168°00'W.) are 120 miles northwest of La Perouse Pinnacle. They were discovered by Captain Allen of the whaler MARO in June 1820. The pinnacles are solid, volcanic, rocky islets; the larger pinnacle is 190 feet high and about 200 yards in diameter, and the smaller about 100 yards from the northwest side of the larger. The rocks are barren of vegetation and are covered with guano, giving them a snow-capped appearance. The only off-lying dangers are a small rock just off the northwest side of the larger pinnacle and two 20-foot patches, one of which is about 100 yards south of the larger pinnacle and the other just north of the smaller pinnacle. From an east approach, the pinnacles are reported visible at a distance of 20 miles.

(1170) Anchorage can be had anywhere on the bank which surrounds the pinnacles, but there is no protection; in general, the holding ground is poor. In comparatively smooth weather, landings can be made just north of the bight on the west side of the larger pinnacle. Because of its exposed position, most times the surf breaks high up its sides and landings are extremely hazardous and generally impossible. Some sea birds nest on its higher elevations.

(1171) 
 Currents
(1172) Current observations taken at a number of locations in the vicinity of Gardner Pinnacles show a west-northwest oceanic drift of about 0.2 knot combined with a rotary tidal current, turning clockwise, of 0.2 knot at strength. Velocities of about 2 knots setting west-southwest were measured during east winds.

(1173) Gardner Pinnacles lie near the northeast side of a bank about 50 miles long, in a north-south direction, and about 20 miles wide near the north end. The bank has depths of 10 to 25 fathoms, and the sand and coral bottom is plainly visible.

(1174) 
 Chart 19019

(1175) Raita Bank (25°32'N., 169°28'W.), is about 85 miles 291° from Gardner Pinnacles. It was discovered in 1921 by the French schooner RAITA. The bank is about 20 miles long in a north-northeast direction and has a maximum width of about 10 miles. Depths range from 9 to 20 fathoms, and the sand and coral bottom is plainly visible under ordinary weather conditions. At the 20-fathom curve, the bottom drops off rapidly to great depths. In heavy weather, the swells seem to lump up slightly over the shoaler areas, but there are no known dangers. Large schools of ulua fish and sharks have been observed on the bank. Anchorage can be had on the bank in the open sea with fair holding ground.

(1176) 
 Currents
(1177) Variable currents are reported in the vicinity of Raita Bank. Observations in the vicinity indicate a rotary tidal current turning clockwise.

(1178) 
 Chart 19441

(1179) Maro Reef (25°25'N., 170°35'W.), is about 60 miles west of Raita Bank. It was discovered by Captain Allen of the whaler MARO in June 1820. The large, oval-shaped, coral bank is about 31 miles long in a northwest direction and about 18 miles wide. The center of the bank is a large area of reefs awash. This broken area, about 12 miles long in a northwest direction and 5 miles wide, is extremely foul, with many coral heads awash and channels of deep water between. Only one very small rock, about 2 feet high and on the north side of the reef, shows above high water. The broken part of the reef is practically always marked by breakers. The wide shelf of the bank is outside the broken part of the reef.

(1180) Breakers, or the light blue-green color of the area within the broken portions of the reef, give the first warning of the proximity of danger. All maneuvering in the vicinity of the broken area must be done with extreme caution and with the sea and light such that shoal spots can be seen and avoided. Ordinarily, spots with less than 6 fathoms of water are plainly visible.

(1181) There are no known dangers more than 3.3 miles from the general outline of broken portions of Maro Reef, thus leaving a navigable shelf with depths of 12 to 20 fathoms on all sides but the northeast where depths of 7 to 10 fathoms are found.

(1182) 
 Currents
(1183) In the vicinity of Maro Reef the prevailing current sets west, but variable currents have been noted. Over the bank a rotary tidal current, turning clockwise, has been reported.

(1184) 
 Charts 19442, 19019

(1185) Laysan Island (25°46'N., 171°44'W.) is a low sand island about 65 miles west-northwest of Maro Reef. The island is 1.6 miles long in a north-south direction, about 1 mile wide, and 35 feet in elevation at its highest point near the north end. In the center of the island is an extremely hypersaline, foul-smelling lake about 0.9 mile long. The island, mostly soft white sand, is partly covered with low vines and grass, and walking over it is tiring because of innumerable sea-bird nesting holes. The island is marked by an ironwood tree behind a wooden refuge warning sign on the west side of the island, and by a grove of coconut palms on the north edge of the lake. The rock which bares about 3 feet, located on the reef northwest of the island presents a good radar target in mild weather. The wreck of a steel fishing boat is on the south shore of the island in 25°45.4'N., 171°44.4'W., but does not present a good radar target. Water can be obtained by digging shallow wells. The island is uninhabited and is seldom visited. As with other islands in the Leeward Islands, an entry permit is required. It is home to countless sea birds. Millions of flies make a visit there unpleasant most of the year.

(1186) A coral reef, a few hundred yards wide, fringes the island. About 0.3 mile off the northwest shore is a small, sharp rock, about 3 feet high. Coral heads, covered with 4 to 7 fathoms of water, are numerous in the area within 1 mile of the island. The sand and coral bottom can usually be seen in depths less than 10 fathoms, and often in greater depths. When approaching closer than 1 mile, a sharp lookout must be maintained to detect the coral heads.

(1187) Vessels can anchor in depths of 8 to 15 fathoms 1 to 1.5 miles off the island on all sides, depending upon which side affords the best protection. During the trades, anchorage can be had 0.5 to 1 mile off the west side in depths of 8 to 15 fathoms, fair holding ground. In 1976, the Coast Guard Cutter MALLOW found good anchorage in 45 feet of water, sand and coral bottom, in 25°46'22"N., 171°45'15"W., with the ironwood tree bearing 084° 1,390 yards. However, the anchor chain is subject to fouling on the coral heads because of the rotary currents. The coral heads are large and present a problem to vessels as they can foul ground tackle. It may be advisable to remain underway while attempting to land a small boat. Small craft drawing not over 12 feet can lie at anchor inside the reef and off the ironwood tree on the west side of the island, but this anchorage affords no protection from west winds. In 1978, the NOAA Ship TOWNSEND CROMWELL found anchorage with good holding ground, sand and coral bottom, and fair protection from strong west and northwest winds accompanied by heavy seas and swell in 25°46.3'N., 171°43.0'W. and 25°45.8'N., 171°43.5'W. Surf of 10 to 15 feet was observed breaking on the west side of the island, and a 3- to 5-foot surf was observed on the reefs on the east and northeast side.

(1188) During northeast and southeast weather, the best landing can be made off the ironwood tree on the west side of the island on a sloping sandy beach. An alternate landing site on the west side of the island is about 0.5 mile south of the primary landing site, where the reef narrows close to shore. A poor landing can be made near the northeast end of the island during light west winds. Caution is advised when attempting a landing on this side of the island. Clear sand beaches are almost nonexistent, and approaches to the beach must be made between breakers on the outer reef and the shore. Summer is the best for landing, as the northeast trades prevail during this period.

(1189) 
 Currents
(1190) A current velocity of about 1 knot and a rotary tidal current, turning clockwise, have been reported. The current is believed to depend to a great extent upon the wind. In 1976, the Coast Guard Cutter MALLOW observed the current to round the south side of the island in a clockwise direction on the flood; and to round the north tip of the island in a counterclockwise direction on the ebb.

(1191) Laysan Island is just southeast of the center of a circular bank 14 miles in diameter, with depths of 9 to 23 fathoms, beyond which the water deepens rapidly.

(1192) Northampton Seamounts unsurveyed seamounts with a least known depth of 15 fathoms, are about 35 miles southwest of Laysan Island.

(1193) 
 Charts 19442, 19022

(1194) Lisianski Island (26°04'N., 173°58'W.) is a small, low, sandy island, about 120 miles west of Laysan Island. Captain Lisianski, of the Russian ship NEVA, discovered the island on October 15, 1805, when his ship grounded on the reef and was nearly wrecked. The island is about 1.2 miles long in a north-northwest direction, 0.5 mile wide, and 20 feet in elevation at its highest point on the northeast side. The shores are white sand except for two stretches of rock ledge at the waterline on the east side of the island. Behind the sand beach, the island is overgrown with vines and bushes. One coconut palm tree in the northeast part of the island is prominent from north. In 1976, a small boat was reported wrecked on the northeast end of the island and two groves of palm trees were observed near the middle of the island. Brackish water may be obtained by digging shallow wells. Large numbers of sea birds nest on the island, and, as at Laysan, large numbers of flies make a stay there unpleasant. Although the island is uninhabited and seldom visited, a permit is required for landing as the Hawaiian Monk seal is protected here. Visits should be made during the summer, when the northeast trades prevail, but small-boat landings have been made on the east side of the island at other times, although this is very risky.

(1195) A reef circles around to the southwest from off the north side of the island. It is marked near its offshore end by a coral ledge that bares at times and over which the seas break. The south end of this ledge is 1.7 miles 260° from the north end of the island. About 0.5 mile southwest of this point is another ledge which is marked by a breaker in most weather. Midway between these ledges or breakers is a passage leading to the lagoon between the island and the reef. The passage has an uneven bottom with depths of 11 to 22 feet. About 350 yards southwest of the north ledge is a small shoal with a depth of 3 feet over it. These shoal spots are easily seen and avoided by small boats making the passage into the lagoon, but vessels should not enter without local knowledge. Once inside, anchorage can be had in depths of 3 to 6 fathoms, taking care to avoid the scattered coral heads with only a few feet of water over them. The coral heads are large and vessels anchoring here are cautioned because of the danger of fouling the ground tackle. Landing can be made on the west side and south end of the island in all but southwest and west weather.

(1196) Neva Shoal with innumerable coral ledges, extends about 8 miles southeast from Lisianski Island. This reef, which is about 4 miles wide, has its west extremity about 4 miles south-southwest of the island. The south end of the reef is usually marked by breakers, and many of the ledges break in almost all weather. The shoal has areas of deeper water between the ledges, and small boats can maneuver but with difficulty over many parts of the reef. It must be avoided entirely by larger vessels.

(1197) In addition to Neva Shoal, there are many coral heads with depths of 3 to 6 fathoms over them within 3 miles of all sides of the island. A small coral ledge, with an islet on it and nearly always marked by breakers, is 2.7 miles 254° from the south end of the island. Between this ledge and the island are depths as great as 8 fathoms and a scattering of coral heads, some of which are nearly awash. The lagoon could be entered between this ledge and the ledge marking the south side of the previously described opening 1 mile north. A rock covered 14 feet, about 1.5 miles north-northeast of the island, is marked by breakers only during heavy weather. Under favorable conditions dangerous coral heads can be seen for several hundred yards.

(1198) 
 Anchorage
(1199) Anchorage can be had in trade-wind weather about 3 miles west of the island in depths of 11 to 15 fathoms, sand and coral bottom, with the north end of the island bearing 080°. During southwest weather, vessels can find anchorage 3 to 4 miles east of the north end of the island in depths of 8 to 15 fathoms. Small boats can anchor in the lagoon, as described previously.

(1200) Vessels may approach to within 3 miles of Lisianski Island from the north on courses between 270° and 090°. The island and Neva Shoal should be given a wide berth when passing south of them, as the island is seldom seen from the south limits of the shoal. Vessels approaching from the southwest should keep about 5 miles west of the meridian of the island until the island bears 090° and then approach the anchorage.

(1201) 
 Currents
(1202) One-half day of current observations taken 3 miles west of Lisianski Island indicate a rotary tidal current, turning clockwise, of 0.8 knot velocity at strength. A prevailing northwest current is reported in the vicinity of the island.

(1203) Lisianski Island and Neva Shoal lie just southeast of the center of a bank about 25 miles long in a northwest direction and about 15 miles wide. Outside the reefs, general depths on the bank are 9 to 47 fathoms.

(1204) Pioneer Bank (26°02'N., 173°26'W.) is about 30 miles east of Lisianski Island. The bank is about 8 miles in diameter, and soundings of 18 fathoms have been obtained near its center. No breakers or dangers were observed during a preliminary survey, but, as the least depth may not have been obtained, vessels should avoid the area.

(1205) An unsurveyed bank with least known depths of 30 fathoms is reported to be about 36 miles northwest of Lisianski Island.

(1206) 
 Chart 19461

(1207) Pearl and Hermes Atoll about 145 miles northwest of Lisianski Island, is an extensive oval-shaped atoll about 40 miles in circumference, 17 miles long in a northeast direction, and 9 miles wide. The reef was discovered on April 26, 1822, by the British whalers PEARL and HERMES, which were wrecked on the same night within 10 miles of each other. Within the outer reef is a lagoon in which are numerous coral reefs with deep water between. The remains of a wreck stranded on the east side of the reef are still visible, but over the years most have been beaten down by breakers. There are no known dangers outside the heavy breakers on the outer reef.

(1208) Within the outer fringing reef are several small islets, most of which are on the south side; the exception is North Island. There are also several sandbanks that are awash at high water. Southeast Island (27°47'N., 175°49'W.) is the largest of the group; five other named islands are scattered along a 7-mile stretch to west. Though uninhabited and vegetated by low plants and shrubs, a permit is required for landing as the Hawaiian Monk seal is protected here. Large numbers of sea birds nest on the island.

(1209) The 6-mile opening on the northwest side of the outer reef has depths of 1 to 6 feet between the numerous coral heads, and is hazardous to negotiate with a small boat. The small-boat channel between Southeast Island and Bird Island next islet to the west, has a least depth of 4 feet; the channel between Bird Island and Sand Island has 19 feet. The eastern portion of the lagoon is maze-like and could be dangerous to the navigator without local knowledge. Caution is advised when making entry.

(1210) 
 Anchorage
(1211) Anchorage can be had off the west entrance to the lagoon in depths of 8 to 12 fathoms, or on the east side of the reef. Vessels have anchored midway between the south entrances and about 0.6 mile off Bird Island in depths of 25 fathoms.

(1212) 
 Currents
(1213) The current appears to set north between Lisianski Island and Pearl and Hermes Atoll.

(1214) 
 Chart 19022

(1215) Salmon Bank is about 60 miles southwest from Southeast Island on Pearl and Hermes Atoll. The least known depth on the bank is 30 fathoms.

(1216) Gambia Shoal position doubtful, is about 50 miles west-northwest of Southeast Island on Pearl and Hermes Atoll. The shoal has a depth of 14 fathoms, and the bottom can be plainly seen. About 25 miles north of the charted position of Gambia Shoal is Ladd Seamount a bank with a least known depth of 35 fathoms.

(1217) 
 Charts 19480, 19481, 19482

(1218) Midway Islands 1,150 miles west-northwest of Honolulu, were discovered in 1859 by Captain N. C. Brooks, an American shipmaster on the Hawai‘ian vessel GAMBIA; possession was taken on behalf of the United States on September 30, 1867, by Captain William Reynolds of the U.S.S. LACKAWANNA. The circular atoll is 6 miles in diameter and encloses two islands. The coral reef does not completely enclose the lagoon; there is a natural opening on the west side, and another opening has been dredged on the south side. The reef rises abruptly from deep water and there are no off-lying rocks or shoals; breakers mark all seaward sides of the reef. The enclosed islands average 12 feet high with a maximum height of 45 feet. Numerous birds, especially albatross, nest on the islands and are sometimes a hazard to landing or departing airplanes.

(1219) The Midway Islands, not part of the State of Hawaii, are under the administration of the Department of the Interior Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge established by Executive Order No. 13022 of October 31, 1996. Copies of the Executive Order directing the Management and General Public Use of the National Wildlife Refuge System can be obtained from Refuge Manager, Hawai‘ian/Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, P.O. Box 50167, Honolulu, HI 96850.

(1220) Requests for emergency entry of vessels in distress should be made by any means possible to the Joint Rescue Coordination Center (JRCC), Honolulu, Hawaii (808–535–3333). JRCC will then obtain entry approval or denial from the USFWS Refuge Manager and provide a response to the requester.

(1221) Non-emergency entry requests must be approved in advance by contacting the USFWS Refuge Manager. Additionally, the Midway harbormaster can be reached by VHF-FM radio channel 16.

(1222) Eastern Island at the southeast end of the atoll, is triangular in shape, about 1.2 miles long, and 6 to 12 feet high.

(1223) Sand Island on the south side of the atoll, is about 2 miles long in a southwest direction and is composed of white coral sand. Prominent from offshore are the towers, tanks, and radio masts of the naval installations and a group of trees on the north side of the island. An aerolight is on top of the tallest tank in the north central part of the island.

(1224) Welles Harbor is the area inside the gap in the barrier reef on the west side of the atoll. The harbor was formerly used to a considerable extent as an anchorage by ships calling at Midway, but since the dredging of the ship channel and harbor between Sand and Eastern Islands, Welles Harbor is little used. Navigation in this area should not be attempted.

(1225) 
 Channels
(1226) An entrance channel leads through the south reef to basins on the east and northeast sides of Sand Island. A separate channel branches off the entrance and leads to a small-craft basin on the west side of Eastern Island. The entrance channel is marked by a lighted buoy, unlighted buoys and a 359.8° range. (Consult the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Notice to Mariners, and latest editions of charts for controlling depths.)

(1227) 
 Anchorages
(1228) The established anchorage area is northeast of Sand Island. Outside anchorage is available in depths of 15 to 25 fathoms east of the main channel sea buoy; this anchorage is fair during northeast winds, but should not be attempted during winds from other quadrants. Anchorage south of Sand Island is prohibited to avoid possible fouling of the San Francisco-Honolulu-Midway-Guam-Manila cable.

(1229) 
 Routes
(1230) Vessels approaching Midway Islands are reminded that entry into the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge is prohibited without prior approval. In approaching from any direction, vessels will remain 3 miles off until south of the entrance. Then vessels should steer a course to pass through a position (28°09'25"N., 177°21'15"W.) about 2 miles south of Midway Channel Entrance Lighted Buoy 1, then steer a north course heading directly between Sand and Eastern Islands until the channel is made out, then steer on the range. Due to the prevailing east winds and west set of current, caution must be exercised in entering. Drift and leeway should be anticipated, and sufficient speed should be maintained at all times to control the vessel. (See discussion of currents in the channel.)

(1231) 
 Radar Navigation
(1232) Radar and visual contact have been frequently made with the radio towers on Sand Island at distances in excess of 20 miles.

(1233) The best radar returns are the southeast edge of Sand Island, the stranded wreck on east edge of the entrance channel, the radio towers on Sand Island, an unlighted platform on the north side of the atoll, and the west tip of Eastern Island.

(1234) 
 Currents
(1235) The current off the main entrance channel usually sets west with a velocity of about 2 knots. Within the channels, the current changes direction with velocities of 2 to 8 knots, depending on the weather; extreme caution is necessary to avoid being carried outside the channel limits. It is reported that during heavy gales Welles Harbor is full of strong currents caused by the sea forced over the reefs.

(1236) Weather, Midway Islands
(1237) During the summer the winds are generally variable and light, either from northeast, southeast or southwest until about the middle of July, when fresh to strong northeast trades set in, continuing through July and August. Southwest winds are always accompanied with a low barometer, rain and squalls. Rain also comes occasionally with northeast and southeast winds and a high barometer. northwest winds following southwest storms generally indicate clearing weather.

(1238) During the winter from October to April, gales frequently occur, working around from southeast through southwest to northwest. Occasionally a few days of fine weather will prevail, but a rough west sea is always present.

(1239) The average temperature at Midway is 73°F (22.8°C). The average maximum is 76°F (24.4°C) while the average minimum is 68°F (20°C). The record high is 92°F (33.3°C) recorded in September 1979, July and August 1984, and August 1987. The record low is 49°F (9.4°C) recorded in January 1980. On average, only one day each year is 90°F (32.2°C) or warmer and 137 days each year are 80°F (26.7°C) or warmer.

(1240) Precipitation is moderate at Midway and averages 41.3 inches (1050 mm) each year. June is the driest month and January the wettest. On average, six thunderstorms each year affect Midway.

(1241) Pilotage, Midway Islands
(1242) Vessels required by law to have a licensed master should consult the Captain of the Port, Honolulu (808–842–2640) to determine specific pilotage requirements. Pilots are not required for public vessels of the United States.

(1243) 
 Harbor facilities
(1244) Two deepwater piers are on the northeast side, and one smaller pier is in the inner harbor on the east side of Sand Island; a small-craft pier is on the west side of Eastern Island.

(1245) Provisions, jet fuel (JP–5), and water are not available for commercial use, except in case of emergency. Limited emergency repairs can be made to vessels, but there are no drydocking facilities. Tugs are available; there is a 20-ton mobile crane for use in emergencies.

(1246) 
 Chart 19480

(1247) Nero Seamount is about 30 miles west-southwest from Midway Islands. Nero Seamount, formerly Pogy Bank, extends about 8.5 miles in an east-west direction, about 7 miles in a north-south direction, and has a least depth of 37 fathoms.

(1248) 
 Chart 19483

(1249) Kure Atoll (28°25'N., 178°20'W.) is 50 miles west-northwest of Midway Islands, which it closely resembles both in formation and appearance. Kure Atoll is 4.5 miles in diameter, and a nearly continuous coral reef encloses a lagoon in which reefs and coral heads alternate with deep water. A mile-wide break in the southwest side of the barrier reef provides an entrance of sorts to the lagoon.

(1250) 
 Anchorage
(1251) Good anchorage in 15 fathoms may be found on the northwest side of the atoll.

(1252) Entry upon Kure Atoll must be approved by the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources and Commander, 14th Coast Guard District, Honolulu, HI. These restrictions apply to all civilian and military agencies as well as individuals.

(1253) Green Island on the southeast side of the atoll, has a highest elevation of 20 feet and is covered with scaevola brush.

(1254) The island is a wildlife refuge and entry upon the island must be by approval of the State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources. This restriction applies to civilian and military agencies as well as individuals. The Coast Guard has reported that Green Island presents a good radar target at 22 miles and the reef line presents a good target at 7.5 miles. Another good radar target, reported by NOAA Ship TOWNSEND CROMWELL, is a large wreck in about 28°27.0'N., 178°18.9'W., on the northeast side of the atoll. West of Green Island are small sand islets, the largest of which is 8- to 10-foot-high Sand Island. These islands continually shift and change with weather and sea action.

(1255) The best anchorage is on the west side, at the southwest corner of the atoll with depth of 8 to 15 fathoms, rocky bottom. Boats may then be taken to a concrete pier with 3 to 5 feet alongside, located at about the midpoint of the lagoon side of Green Island. Vessels also anchor about 0.3 to 0.5 mile south-southwest of the south tip of Green Island in depths up to 15 fathoms. Landings can be made in good weather through a break in the reef to a sand beach at the southwest tip of Green Island; depths to the landing are 5 to 6 feet between small coral heads and ledges.

(1256) A bank with depths of 20 to 30 fathoms surrounds Kure Atoll. No dangers have been observed outside the reef; however, the reef is inadequately surveyed. From the appearance of the islands, it may be assumed that they are sometimes visited by severe storms, the sand being thrown into numerous cones and pyramids.

(1257) 
 Currents
(1258) A set to the south has been observed between Kure Atoll and Midway Islands. In the vicinity of Kure Atoll a continuous east current of about 2 knots during west weather has been reported.

(1259) 
 Weather
(1260) Weather for Kure Atoll is similar to that for the Midway Islands.

(1261) 
 Chart 19022

(1262) In 1923, breakers were reported observed about 180 miles south of Kure Atoll in about 25°23'N., 178°04'W., by the American vessel ETHAN ALLEN. The master reported that the swell appeared to mount up and occasionally break as though over a shoal extending for about 2 or 3 miles in an east-west direction.

(1263) 
 Charts 83633, 83637

(1264) Johnston Atoll (16°45'N., 169°31'W.) is about 780 miles west-southwest of the Island of Hawai‘i. Johnston Atoll consists of four islets that lie on a reef about 9 miles long in a northeast-southwest direction. Johnston Island, the largest island, lies about 2 miles inside the southwest end of the reef. Sand Island and Hikina Island lie about 1 and 2 miles northeast of Johnston Island, respectively; Akau Island is about 1.5 miles north of Sand Island.

(1265) Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge encompasses all lands and waters within 12 miles from emergent land; the emergent land is currently under the administrative jurisdiction of the U.S. Air Force. Entry to the refuge is strictly prohibited without prior approval from the U.S. Air Force and the Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex (See Appendix A, Department of Interior for address.) Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge is managed as a highly restricted marine reserve to prevent the introduction of invasive species and protect nesting seabirds, sea turtles, other sensitive wildlife and coral reef habitats, and is subject to Federal regulations (See 50 CFR Parts 25-38 and 665). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/johnston_atoll.

(1266) 
 Prominent features
(1267) The large multi-story Joint Operations Building stands on the northeast end of Johnston Island and is very prominent. The outline of the island does not show until within 10 miles of the island.

(1268) 
 Channels
(1269) The main entrance channel is entered south of Johnston Island and leads to the harbor. The harbor consists of a turning basin within the lagoon about midway between Johnston and Sand Islands. In 1964, the entrance channel was dredged to a depth of 35 feet. The turning basin and harbor area have a depth of 35 feet. The berthing area alongside the main pier has a depth of 29.8 feet. Maximum draft for vessels entering the harbor under normal conditions is 28 feet. The largest vessel to enter was 656 feet long. Vessels should not enter at night or when cross channel winds exceed 25 knots.

(1270) 
 Anchorage
(1271) Vessels drawing more than 28 feet should anchor in the channel approach area south of the channel entrance. Anchorage is prohibited within the area of an arc extending 1.5 miles south and southeast from 16°42'44"N., 169°31'01"W, and in an area situated near the center of the turning basin.

(1272) 
 Dangers
(1273) A barrier reef surrounds Johnston Island, and extends in an arc from about 2 miles west to about 7 miles northeast of the island. Depths outside the reef drop off to 100 fathoms about 0.4 mile off. With heavy breakers on the reef, a 2 to 3-foot surge exists inside the lagoon. From the northeast, via south to southwest is a foul area with a very irregular bottom. The 100-fathom curve lies 4 miles south of the center of Johnston Island; however, there are 5-fathom shoals lying as close as 0.3 mile inside the curve and depths shallower than 10 fathoms can be found as far as 10 miles east and 6 miles southeast of the Johnston Island.

(1274) 
 Weather
(1275) Winds average 10 to 15 knots in summer and 15 to 25 knots in winter. They are from the east to northeast about 90 percent of the time. The occasional Hawai‘ian Island storms are characterized by stormy south or southwest winds and heavy rains. Brief showers occur frequently, but protracted bad weather is rare. Visibility is good, usually over 12 miles.