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Coast Pilot 7 - Chapter 15 - Edition 49, 2017



Pacific Islands

(1) Islands and Pacific waters discussed in this chapter are other than those of the Hawai‘ian Archipelago. See chapter 14, Hawaii, for the latter.

(2) 
 National Wildlife Refuges
(3) The U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wildlife Refuge System, Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex manages ten National Wildlife Refuges in the Pacific region. Eight of these Refuges consist of waters and submerged and emergent lands. The remaining two Refuges, the Marianas Arc of Fire and the Mariana Trench National Wildlife Refuges consist only of submerged lands.

(3.01) The eight National Wildlife Refuges are Rose Atoll (American Samoa), Johnston Atoll, Wake Atoll, Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef and Palmyra Atoll. The refuge boundaries extend outward 12 miles, except at Rose Atoll. The refuges are managed as highly restricted marine reserves to prevent the introduction of invasive species (e.g. rats, insects, plants) and protect nesting seabirds, sea turtles, other sensitive wildlife and coral reef habitats.

(3.02) The waters and submerged and emergent lands of National Wildlife Refuges are subject to the regulations governing the National Wildlife Refuge System found in Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, parts 25-38. Therefore, except as provided by international law, these areas are closed to all forms of entry, other than innocent passage, unless specifically authorized by a Special Use Permit issued by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. An entry permit is obtained from Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex (see Appendix A, Department of Interior for address). For more information, visit the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge and Marine Monuments at www.fws.gov/pacificislandsrefuges.

(4) 
 Chart 83484

(5) The Samoa Islands (Navigator Islands) (13°25'S. to 14°30'S.; 168°00'W. to 173°00'W.) consists of two groups of islands, which are commonly referred to as American Samoa and Western Samoa. The islands comprising American Samoa are Tutuila Island Aunuu Island Ofu Island Olosega Island Ta'u Island and Rose Atoll. Western Samoa comprises the islands of Upolu Island and Savai'i Island.

(6) The Samoa Islands have been populated for 3,000 years, but known to the western world for little more than two centuries. American Samoa, the only U.S. territory south of the equator, consists of five rugged, highly eroded volcanic islands, and two coral atolls. The land area of the territory is 76 square miles. The islands have a population of approximately 65,000, with most people living on Tutuila Island. Tuna fishing and canning are the major industries.

(7) The National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa established in 1986 and expanded in 2012, consists of six distinct units. These units include Larsen Bay (Fagalua/Fogama'a), Fagatele Bay and the waters surrounding Swains Island, Rose Atoll (Muliava), Annu’u Island (partial) and Ta’u Island (partial). The precise boundaries are defined by regulation. The Sanctuary contains a unique and vast array of tropical marine organisms, including corals and a diverse tropical reef ecosystem with endangered and threatened species. The Sanctuary also contains areas such as near-shore, mid-shore, deep reef, seamount, open pelagic waters and other habitats and areas of historical and cultural significance. (See 15 CFR 922.1 through 922.50 and Subpart J chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(8) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(9) The lines established for U.S. Pacific Island Possessions are described in 33 CFR 80.1495 chapter 2.

(10) 
 Weather, Samoa Islands
(11) The prevailing winds, or so-called trade winds, come from a direction more nearly east, blowing between east-southeast and north-northeast. They are fairly constant through the dry season, but during the wet season they are fitful, and are frequently broken by periods of calm. The islands lie within the typhoon area of the west Pacific. Typhoons occur from January to March, and occasionally up to the middle of April. The year divides itself distinctly, but not sharply into a dry season (May to November) and a wet season (November to April.) The wettest month, January, has a range of 5 to 65 inches of precipitation. The annual rainfall has also varied this much. The climate varies little from year to year, because of the great area of water surrounding the group. December is the hottest month, with an average excess of only about 2° over the mean temperature for July, the coldest month.

(12) 
 Caution
(13) Caution should be exercised in the vicinity of American Samoa, as several Fish Aggregating Devices have been moored at off-lying, deep-water locations around Tutuila Island, and other positions around the group. The devices may drift off position, and/or concentrations of fishing vessels may be found in their vicinity. The devices are comprised of aluminum catamaran floats painted orange and white. Each device carries a white daymark, fitted with the letter designation of the device, and a flashing white light. The devices offer good radar returns.

(14) Rose Atoll (14°33'S., 168°09'W.), the farthest east of the Samoa Islands, is nearly square in shape; its sides are about 1.5 miles in length. Sand Island, inside the reef on the north extremity, is merely a sand spot. A large clump of trees, 65 feet high, stands on Rose Island. A boat channel leading inside the atoll is close west of the north extremity of the reef. This channel is very dangerous to navigate and should only be attempted in an emergency.

(15) Rose Atoll Marine National Monument incorporates approximately 13,451 square miles within its boundaries, which extend 50 miles from the mean low water line of Rose Atoll. Permission is not required for innocent passage through these waters, however mariners should exercise extreme caution to avoid close proximity (within 1 mile) to reefs and emergent land, disturbance to wildlife, sensitive habitats, introduction of invasive species or accidental grounding. Commercial fishing is prohibited within the Monument (See 50 CFR 665). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/rose_atoll_marine_national_monument.

(16) Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge encompasses all lands and waters within the mean low water line of the outer reef. Entry to the refuge is strictly prohibited without prior approval from the Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex (See Appendix A, Department of Interior for address.) Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge is managed as a highly restricted marine reserve to prevent the introduction of invasive species, protect sensitive wildlife and coral reef habitats, and is subject to Federal regulations (See 50 CFR Parts 25-38). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/rose_atoll.

(17) 
 Tides and currents
(18) Tidal currents off Rose Atoll are reported to set northeast and southwest, with the southwest or ebb current being the stronger.

(19) The Manu`a Islands (14°13'S., 169°33'W.) consists of three islands, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta`ū Island, which extend over an area of about 17 miles in an east-southeast/west-northwest direction. The islands are about 60 miles east of Tutuila Island. Ofu and Olosega are joined by a bridge. These islands are sparsely populated. The villages on the islands have only a few hundred people. There is a national park on Ofu and Ta`ū Island.

(20) Ta`ū Island (14°15'S., 169°28'W.) is the farthest east of the three islands which comprise the Manu`a Islands. The island is about 5.8 miles long, east to west, is dome-shaped, and rises to a height of 3,170 feet. It is covered with vegetation. Maafee Island is located close offshore, about 0.3 mile south of the west extremity of the island.

(21) Ta'u Harbor (14°14.5'S., 169°30.6'W.), on the west shore, has an entrance channel, marked by a 045° unlighted range, and leads northeast to a turning basin in the harbor. In 2012, the controlling depth was 14.5 feet in the entrance channel, thence depths of 10 to 13 feet were available in the basin (except for lesser depths to 7 feet in the south corner.) Permission to enter the harbor along with directions must be obtained from the harbormaster in Pago Pago Harbor.

(22) The entrance channel to the harbor is cut through a reef. Waves routinely break along this reef on either side of the harbor entrance and may be encountered in the channel during moderate surf conditions. In transiting the entrance channel, attempts to time incoming swells may be difficult due to the unpredictable nature of wave systems in the vicinity. If there is a necessity to transit the channel during periods of moderate surf, low tide may present safer conditions. Faleāsao Harbor may also provide more favorable conditions when wind and seas are out of the southeast.

(23) Faleasao Harbor (14°13.02'S., 169°30.10'W.) is located at the northwest point of Ta'u Island. Severe storms have damaged the jetty and mariners are advised to avoid the jetty while transiting the channel. Numerous coral heads and a shallow bottom present a danger to navigation. In 2005, the controlling depth was 10 feet in the entrance channel (except for lesser depths to 7 feet along the edges), thence the harbor basin had depths of 9 to 10 feet with lesser depths in the northwest corner. The entrance is marked by a 200.5° unlighted range. Permission to enter the harbor along with directions must be obtained from the harbormater in Pago Pago Harbor.

(24) 
 Anchorage
(25) Faleāsao on the northwest side of the island, affords sheltered anchorage, in 14.5 fathoms, during the trade winds, but a vessel should be prepared to weigh anchor with any change. Anchorage may be obtained, in 13 fathoms, coral, 0.4 mile west of Fiti`uta Point the northeast extremity of the island.

(26) 
 Caution
(27) An area with a least depth of 23 fathoms, is about 1.3 miles west from the northwest extremity of Ta'u Island. This area has experienced submarine volcanic activity.

(28) 
 Currents
(29) The tidal currents at the Faleasau anchorage flow southwest on the ebb at 1 to 2 knots, and the flood flows northwest at 1 to 2 knots.

(30) Olosega Island (14°11'S., 169°37'W.), 6 miles northwest of Ta'u Island, rises nearly perpendicular on its west side to a height of 2,095 feet. The coral reef surrounding the island consists of two regular shelves, one beyond the other. There is fair anchorage, except during the trade winds, in 18 fathoms, coral, south of the west extremity of Olosega Island, and in 14.5 fathoms, sand, northeast of the west extremity of the island.

(31) Ofu Island (14°11'S., 169°39'W.) is separated from Olosega Island by Asaga Strait, which is about 0.2 mile wide. Ofu Island is nearly 3 miles long in an east-west direction, and about 1.5 miles at its widest point. The island rises to 1,621 feet on its southeast part. Two islets lie off the west side of the island. The coastal reef extends about 0.2 mile from Ofu Island to these islets. Lights are on the northwest end of the island. There is good anchorage, except during strong trade winds, in 17 fathoms, sand, northwest of Sunuitao Peak at the east end of the island.

(32) Ofu Harbor (14°09.8'S., 169°40.9'W.) is on the northwest point of Ofu Island. A dredged entrance channel leads east to a turning basin inside the harbor. In 2005, the controlling depth was 11 feet in the entrance channel to the basin, thence depths of 11 to 16 feet were available in the basin with lesser depths in the northwest and southeast corners. Storms have damaged the seawalls and mariners are advised to stay clear. Offloading and loading of cargo is not advised during high tide. Permission to enter the harbor along with directions must be obtained from the harbormaster in Pago Pago Harbor.

(33) Tutuila Island (14°19'S., 170°42'W.) is about 17 miles long in an east-northeast/west-southwest direction, 5 miles wide, and rises to a height of 2,142 feet. A wooded mountain ridge extends nearly the entire length of the island and is extremely rugged, especially in the east. The north coast is bold and precipitous. The 100-fathom curve lies from 0.1 to 2.3 miles off the south coast, about 4.3 miles off the west extremity, and from 1.3 to 2.5 miles off the north coast. There are several shoal areas, especially off the south coast, which are best seen on the chart. The south coast of the island extends from Cape Matātula the east extremity of the island, in a west-southwest direction about 14 miles to Steps Point the south extremity, and then about 5.8 miles northwest to Cape Taputapu the west extremity. From Cape Matātula to Matuli Point 1.5 miles south, the coast is fronted by a reef which extends about 0.1 mile offshore.

(34) Auasi Harbor about 0.5 mile west-southwest of Matuli Point, is protected by a jetty on the southwest side and a breakwater to the northeast. An entrance channel leads northwest, between the jetty and breakwater, into the harbor to a turning basin. In 2005, the controlling depths were 9 feet in the left half and 3 feet in the right half of the entrance channel, thence depths of 5 to 8 feet were available in the basin.

(35) 
 Currents
(36) Currents near the coast set south-southwest, particularly with northeast winds; velocities of 4 knots have been observed. Between Tutuila Island and Upolo Island (Western Samoa), a northwest current with a velocity of less than 0.5 knot has been found to exist. A current setting southwest from Cape Taputapu is said to produce overfalls.

(37) Aunuu Island (14°17'S., 170°33'W.) is 0.7 mile south-southeast of Matuli Point. The island has two peaks, and there is a village at its west end.

(38) Aunuu Harbor is located on the west side of Aunuu Island. Aunuu Harbor is a feeder port for the island. Small boats from Auasi Harbor on Tutuila Island frequently transit between the islands. Mariners should be aware that the light off the northwest corner of the island, near the harbor, marks the entrance and is on the south jetty, not the north jetty. Permission to enter the harbor along with directions must be obtained from the harbormaster in Pago Pago Harbor.

(39) A dredged entrance channel leads east between a revetted mole on the north and a breakwater on the south to a mooring basin. In 2012, the controlling depth was 9 feet in the entrance channel, thence depths of 7 to 8 feet were in the basin.

(40) 
 Caution
(41) A cable area extends across the channel between Aunuu and Tutuila Islands and is best seen on the chart; vessels should avoid anchoring in the vicinity. Nāfanua Bank with a least charted depth of 3½ fathoms, extends 1.5 miles in a southwest direction from Aunuu Island. A rock, covered 1¾ fathom, is about 0.4 mile south-southeast of Cape Fogausa. A rock, covered 3 fathoms, is about 1.2 miles southwest of Cape Fogausa between Faga`itua Bay and Narragansett Passage. The chart should be consulted for other depths.

(42) Breakers Point (14°17.4'S., 170°39.8'W.), 3.5 miles west-southwest of Cape Fogausa, is the east entrance point to Pago Pago Harbor and is marked by a light. In 1989, discolored water was reported in the south approach to the harbor in about 14°22.2'S., 170°40.7'W. Tāemā Bank with a least depth of 4 fathoms, lies about 1.6 miles south-southeast of the entrance to Pago Pago Harbor. The bank is about 2.3 miles long in an east-northeast/west-southwest direction and is marked on the west end by a lighted buoy. Narragansett Passage is between Tāemā Bank and Nāfanua Bank to the east. There are several banks in the vicinity of the passage whose positions may best be seen on the chart. The passage is not recommended due to the age of survey.

(43) Pago Pago Harbor (14°17'S., 170°40'W.), a natural harbor located on the south shore of Tutuila Island, is entered between Breakers Point and Niuloa Point. Pago Pago on the northwest side of the harbor is the largest village on the island and is the capital of American Samoa; it is the only port of entry for American Samoa. The village of Utulei is close southeast of the government administration buildings, and the village of Fagatogo is close west of the same buildings.

(44) 
 Prominent Features
(45) Easily identified landmarks include Aunuu Island; Steps Point, the south extremity of the island; the sharp peak of Matafao Peak 2,142 feet high, 1.3 miles south of Pago Pago; the flat, dome shape of North Pioa Mountain 1,718 feet high, on the east side of the harbor; and Fatu Rock 102 feet high, 0.2 mile south of Niuloa Point. Tauga Rock about 1 mile east of Breakers Point, is 89 feet high and prominent.

(46) 
 Routes
(47) Vessels approaching from the east should pass about 2 miles east and 1.5 miles southeast of Aunuu Island, thence a course of 256° should be steered until Breakers Point Light (14°17'23"S., 170°39'49"W.) bears about 025° thence alter course to the north to pass west of Tāemā Bank. When clear of the bank, steer a northeast course to intersect the entrance range, thence steer 342° and enter the harbor the range. This range line passes east of Whale Rock and west of Toasa Rock. Vessels and deep-draft vessels approaching from the west or south should keep outside the 100-fathom line until reaching 14°21.0'S., 170°41.5'W., thence steer 025° to clear the west end of Tāemā Bank, then proceed as directed above. Mariners should stay well clear of Tāemā Bank. Locals have noted breakers over Tāemā Bank during rough weather.

(48) 
 Anchorage
(49) There is good anchorage in the inner harbor, in 6 to 25 fathoms, mud and sand. The best anchorage for large vessels is at midchannel off the Main Dock. Vessels of 1,000 gross tons or more should not anchor in less than 15¾ fathoms, as the harbor becomes narrow and there is no room to swing.

(50) 
 Dangers
(51) The shores of the harbor are fringed by reefs, which on the west and east sides of the entrance extend up to 0.3 mile offshore. In most parts the reefs are steep-to and their edges are marked by surf. The depths in the harbor are from 17 to 37 fathoms. A dangerous submerged wreck is about 0.1 mile south of Breakers Point. Whale Rock covered 2 fathoms and marked by a lighted buoy on the east side and Toasa Rock covered 2 feet and marked by a buoy on the southwest side, are the two principal dangers in the harbor.

(51.01) 
 Tides
(51.02) The mean tidal range is 2.3 feet, while the spring range is 3 feet.

(52) 
 Pilotage
(53) Pilotage is not compulsory, but is advisable; a pilot is available day or night. Pilotage fees are charged whether or not a pilot is used. It is recommended that large vessels request a pilot if docking in inclement weather. A radio request for a pilot should be made 24 hours prior to the ETA. The pilot boards in 14°17.27'S., 170°40.16'W., south of Whale Rock. In calm weather, the pilot will embark 0.75 mile south of Fatu Rock. Entrance at night is not encouraged; however, if previous arrangements are made and weather permits, a pilot will embark during hours of darkness. Port officials board incoming ships alongside the dock.

(54) 
 Harbormaster
(55) Pago Pago Harbor Control and the harbormaster may be contacted on VHF-FM channel 16 or 6. Pago Pago Harbor Control also monitors 2182 kHz. Required notifications to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection and/or the Captain of the Port, Honolulu, may be made in American Samoa to:

(56) U.S. Coast Guard Liaison Office, American Samoa

(57) P.O. Box 249

(58) Pago Pago, AS 96799

(59) 
 Wharves
(60) Station Wharf (Main Wharf), on the south side of the inner harbor, has depths of 5¼ to 6 fathoms alongside, however, in 1987, a vessel reported a least depth of 5 fathoms alongside. A deep draft container wharf, 787 feet long, is situated between Station Wharf and the oil dock. The oil dock has depths of 5¼ fathoms alongside. In 1992, Station Wharf and the oil dock were reported to be in poor condition. The customs pier has a depth of 1½ fathoms at the southwest end and 3¾ fathoms at the northeast end. The facilities on the north shore of the inner harbor are reserved for the fishing fleet serving the canneries.

(61) From Pago Pago Harbor, the shore trends southwest 6.8 miles to Steps Point (14°22.4'S., 170°45.6'W.) Midway along this stretch of shore, near the airport, a reef extends about 0.3 mile offshore; the sea breaks continuously on this reef.

(62) The shore from Steps Point to Pupualoa Point about 2 miles northwest, is formed partly by perpendicular rocks and partly by blocks of lava, which extend some distance seaward and upon which the sea breaks. Leone Bay is entered between Pupualoa Point and Fagaone Point and is open to the south-southwest. There is anchorage west of the village of Leone in 15 to 20 fathoms, but it is dangerous when winds are from the south or south-southwest.

(63) Cape Taputapu (14°19'S., 170°51'W.), the west extremity of Tutuila Island, lies 1.5 miles west-northwest of Fagaone Point. It is a mass of high, steep rocks, fronted by some rocky islets. Taputapu Island lies on the reef close southwest of Cape Taputapu. The following banks, with the indicated least depths, lie in the approach to Cape Taputapu:

(64) a. 14 fathoms – 3.3 miles southeast.

(65) b. 11 fathoms – 2.3 miles south-southeast.

(66) c. 15 fathoms – 3.8 miles southwest.

(67) d. 18 fathoms – 3.5 miles west.

(68) The north coast of Tutuila Island is described from east to west. From Cape Matātula to Pola Island 6.5 miles west, the coast is indented by numerous bays. The coast then trends west-southwest 11 miles to Cape Taputapu; this coast is also indented with bays. Aoa Bay (14°15.0'S., 170°35.4'W.), affords anchorage, in 16 fathoms, midway between the entrance points. Masefau Bay entered west of Tiapea Point 1.5 miles west of Aoa Bay, affords anchorage, in 17 fathoms. The surrounding reefs and Nuusetoga Island off the west entrance point, narrow the anchorage. Āfono Bay 1.5 miles west of Nuusetoga Island, is reported to provide good anchorage, in 14 fathoms, coral, except in north winds.

(69) Pola Island (14°14.0'S., 170°40.2'W.), 1.5 miles northwest of Afona Bay, is located off the north extremity of Tutuila Island. Cockscomb Point the north extremity of Pola Island is formed by a ridge of rocks, which are high, indented, and steep. An area with a least depth of 12 fathoms is just over 1 mile east-northeast of Cockscomb Point and an area with a least depth of 15 fathoms is about 1.5 miles west of the point.

(69.01) Fagasā Bay is about 4 miles southwest of Cockscomb Point. Anchorage, protected from the trades, can be had in 13 fathoms between the east and west points of the bay. Between Fagasā Bay and Aoloau Bay 3 miles west-southwest, there are two small bays backed by mountains. Aoloau Bay affords good anchorage, in 14 fathoms in mid-bay, but vessels should be prepared to leave on short notice when the winds shift to the north. Aoloau Bay is small and surrounded by high mountains. A 12-fathom area is 1.5 miles north-northeast of Aoloau Bay. Similar depths are charted to a distance of 4.8 miles west of the 12-fathom depth.

(69.02) Poloa Bay (14°19.0'S., 170°50.6'W.), 4 miles southwest of Aoloau Bay, affords good anchorage during east winds, in 16 fathoms, midway between the entrance points. Vessels should be prepared to leave on short notice when the wind shifts to the west. In this bay there is a 1 to 4 knot current that runs in a southwest direction. Cape Taputapu is located close southwest of Poloa Bay.

(70) Swains Island (11°03'S., 171°04'W.), about 195 miles north-northwest of Tutuila Island (American Samoa), is a circular-shaped island, with a diameter of about 1.5 miles. The island is administered by the government of American Samoa. A steep reef surrounds the island and uncovers at low water. The island is covered with heavy vegetation including palm trees reaching 100 feet at the northwest corner and 70 to 80 feet on the east side.

(71) Swains Island provides no sheltered anchorage; deep-draft vessels are advised to remain at least 0.4 mile offshore as depths shoal rapidly. There is anchorage for small vessels, north of the village of Taulaga on the west side of the island. A charted landing, marked by a flagpole, is at Taulaga.

(72) 
 Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument
(73) The Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument incorporates approximately 86,888 square miles within its boundaries, which extend 50 miles from the mean low water lines of Howland, Baker and Jarvis Islands; Johnston, Wake and Palmyra Atolls; and Kingman Reef. Permission is not required for innocent passage through these waters, however mariners should exercise extreme caution to avoid close proximity (within 1 mile) to reefs and emergent land, disturbance to wildlife, sensitive habitats, introduction of invasive species or accidental grounding. Commercial fishing is prohibited within the monument. More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/pacific_remote_islands_marine_national_monument and www.fpir.noaa.gov.

(74) 
 Chart 83157

(75) Palmyra Atoll (5°53'N., 162°05'W.), about 870 miles south-southwest of the Island of Hawai‘i, is an atoll which consists of many small islets lying on a barrier reef enclosing three distinct lagoons. The reef surrounding the atoll is 5 miles long, east to west, and 2 miles at its widest part. Shoal water extends 1.8 miles east from the southeast end of the reef and the same distance from the northwest and southwest ends. The islets are low, about 6 feet high, and covered with coconut and other trees reaching heights of 98 feet and visible 12 to 15 miles.

(76) 
 Channels
(77) A dredged entrance channel leads through the southwest side of the atoll to West Lagoon; it is the only entrance to the atoll. In 2006, a depth of 18 feet was reported in the channel. Depths in the lagoon vary from 10 to 174 feet. Reefs and shoals within the lagoon are shown on the chart. A pier along the northeast edge of West Lagoon is in poor condition with depths of 19 to 23 feet alongside. A current is reported to set west in the entrance channel. It is not advisable to enter the channel between sunset and sunrise.

(78) 
 Anchorage
(79) The atoll should be approached from the west and anchor on the bank, in 72 feet, sand and coral, with the northwest extremity of the island bearing 071° 2.5 miles distant, or farther in, in 48 feet, sand and coral, with the point on the same bearing 2 miles distant. It is not advisable to attempt to anchor between sunset and sunrise. In 1988, a 2 knot current setting south was observed during a northwest fresh at the anchorage. Anchorage in West Lagoon may be had only with permission from the Refuge Manager.

(80) 
 Caution
(81) An explosive dumping area is situated with its center about 15 miles west-southwest of Palmyra Atoll.

(82) 
 Tides and Currents
(83) The tidal rise at Palmyra Atoll is about 2 feet at MHHW and 0 feet at MLW. Strong and variable currents can be expected in the vicinity of the atoll. Caution is advised if approaching the atoll from the southwest as dangerous tide rips have been reported 5 miles southwest of the atoll. A current sets northwest across the entrance channel and is particularly strong southwest of Sand Island.

(84) 
 Weather
(85) Palmyra Atoll has unfavorable weather and is the only island/atoll in its latitude where fresh west winds occur. A tropical front, a result of the Northeast and Southeast Trades converging, hovers in the vicinity of the atoll. Northeast Trades prevail, with an average velocity of 10 to 12 knots. There are frequent squalls of short duration and occasional winds up to 22 knots; typhoons are infrequent. Rainfall is heavy and humidity high, ranging from 100 to 180 inches annually. Rain occurs almost daily and heavy squalls come up suddenly from the southwest, but there are no severe storms.

(86) Palmyra Atoll is a U.S. possession and a National Wildlife Refuge under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The refuge encompasses all other islands, waters and submerged lands within 12 miles from emergent land. Visiting vessels are welcome but only with prior approval from the Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex (See Appendix A, Department of Interior for address.) Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge is managed as a highly restricted marine reserve to prevent the introduction of invasive species, protect sensitive wildlife and coral reef habitats, and is subject to the National Wildlife Refuge System regulations (See 50 CFR Parts 25-38). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/palmyra_atoll. Some islands of the Atoll are privately owned, including Cooper Island, which is administered by The Nature Conservancy; personnel on the island monitor VHF-FM channel 16.

(87) 
 Chart 83153

(88) Kingman Reef (6°25'N., 162°26'W.) is located about 33 miles north-northwest of Palmyra Atoll. It is triangular in shape with its apex to the north and is about 9 miles long east and west, and 5 miles north and south. The reef dries on its northeast, east and southeast edges with small islets, reported to not be permanent, forming on these sides. The remainder of the atoll is contained within the ridge with depths of 10 to 20 fathoms. Breaks in the reef are on the north and south sides. Outside the ridge the bottom slopes steeply to over 100 fathoms.

(89) The reef has been reported to be difficult to identify, both visually and by radar. It has also been reported to be visible at 7 miles with optimal conditions; in weather it is very difficult to see. In 2007, with 8 to 10-foot seas, an island was sighted at about 3 miles out.

(90) Kingman Reef is within the belt traversed by the equatorial countercurrent which sets east at a rate of 1.3 to 1.8 knots in this area.

(91) Kingman Reef is a U.S. possession and a National Wildlife Refuge under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wild Service. The refuge encomapasses all lands and waters within 12 miles from emergent land. The reef is also a Defensive Sea Area and Airspace Reservation and is closed to the public. Kingman Reef National Wildlife Refuge is managed as a highly restricted marine reserve to prevent the introduction of invasive species, protect sensitive wildlife and coral reef habitats, and is subject to Federal regulations (See 50 CFR Parts 25-38 and 665). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/kingman_reef.

(92) 
 Chart 83116

(93) Jarvis Island (0°22'S., 160°00'W.), an island of sand and coral formation, is located about 460 miles south-southeast of Palmyra Atoll. The island is 1.8 miles long east to west, and about 1 mile wide; it rises to a height of 20 feet. A narrow fringing reef, which dries in places and has breakers along the south shore, encircles the island. There are two breaks in the reef on the west side. A daybeacon is near the middle of the west shore.

(94) A shoal with a least depth of 2½ fathoms extends about 0.6 mile from the east side of the island. The depths drop rapidly outside the shoal area. The highest ground lies on the west end of the island. Low shrubs cover most of the island, however, it has been observed without much vegetation.

(94.01) Jarvis Island has been reported to lie 1 mile northeast (1991), 1.6 miles east (1992), and 1.3 miles east-northeast (1996) of its charted position.

(95) Jarvis Island is a U.S. possession and a National Wildlife Refuge under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The refuge encompasses all lands and waters within 12 miles from emergent land. Entry to the refuge is strictly prohibited without prior approval from the Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex (See Appendix A, Department of Interior for address.) Jarvis Island National Wildlife Refuge is managed as a highly restricted marine reserve to prevent the introduction of invasive species, protect sensitive wildlife and coral reef habitats, and is subject to Federal regulations (See 50 CFR Parts 25-38 and 665). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/jarvis_island.

(96) Baker Island (0°12'N., 176°29'W.) is nearly flat but rises to an elevation of 20 feet at its southwest end. At this point there is a steep, sandy beach which extends some distance north; elsewhere, the island is fringed by a coral reef. An extensive shoal with depths of 3 to 7 fathoms extends about 0.8 mile from the island on the north and east sides. The surf breaks heavily on the east side and the southwest extremity of the island.

(97) Baker Island is a U.S. possession and a National Wildlife Refuge under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The refuge encompasses all lands and waters within 12 miles from emergent land. Entry to the refuge is strictly prohibited without prior approval from the Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex (See Appendix A, Department of Interior for address.) Baker Island National Wildlife Refuge is managed as highly restricted marine reserve to prevent the introduction of invasive species, protect sensitive wildlife and coral reef habitats, and is subject to Federal regulations (See 50 CFR Parts 25-38 and 665). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/baker_island.

(98) 
 Anchorage
(99) There is no sheltered anchorage. Vessels lie off the island and discharge to landing craft. The fringing coral reef surrounding Baker Island makes landing difficult. The south point of the island can be used for landing when winds are from the northeast. A daybeacon is near the middle of the west shore. Tangent bearings of the island are unreliable.

(100) 
 Weather
(101) The west side of the island is leeward of prevailing wind conditions. Winds from the east predominate throughout the year. From December to May, the prevailing winds are sometimes interrupted by west winds and bad weather.

(102) Howland Island (0°48'N., 176°37'W.), about 38 miles north-northwest of Baker Island, is a low, flat island devoid of vegetation other than a few stunted trees. It is ringed by a relatively flat coral reef almost completely exposed at low water extending out to about 0.1 mile, except on the west side where the reef averages about 80 yards in width. Outside this reef is a coral shelf extending about 0.3 to 0.5 mile on the north, east and south sides, and about 0.1 mile on the west side. The depths on this shelf vary between 2 and 15 fathoms.

(103) A broad, sandy, and in some places, gravelly beach slopes upward at a slight angle on the west side of the island. On the windward or east side, there is practically no beach and the island rises abruptly from the reef to an average height of 12 feet, with the highest point about 18 feet in the north part. Amelia Earhart Daybeacon is situated near the center of the west side of the island.

(104) Howland Island is a U.S. possession and a National Wildlife Refuge under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The refuge encompasses all lands and waters within 12 miles from emergent land. Entry to the refuge is strictly prohibited without prior approval from the Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex (See Appendix A, Department of Interior for address.) Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge is managed as a highly restricted marine reserve to prevent the introduction of invasive species, protect sensitive wildlife and coral reef habitats, and is subject to Federal regulations (See 50 CFR Parts 25-38 and 665). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/howland_island.

(105) 
 Anchorage
(106) In 1966, a vessel anchored 0.4 mile from the north end of the island in 30 fathoms, with the east tangent of the island bearing 144° the west tangent bearing 185° and the daybeacon bearing 167.5°. In 1967, a vessel anchored about 0.3 mile north-northeast of the north end of the island in 13 fathoms, with the east tangent of the island bearing 153° the west tangent bearing 213° and the daybeacon bearing 176° distance 1 mile. If an easterly swell is present, anchorage is not advisable at the north end of the island.

(107) 
 Weather
(108) Winds from the east predominate throughout the year. From December to May, the prevailing winds are sometimes interrupted by west winds and bad weather.

(109) 
 Chart 81664

(110) Wake Island (19°17'N., 166° 37'E.) lies in the Pacific Ocean on the direct route from Hawaii to Hong Kong. It is a U.S. possession with an area of only 3 square miles, consisting of three islands about 21 feet high. The islands form all but the northwest side of an atoll enclosing a shallow lagoon. The higher parts of the islands are covered with fairly heavy growth of scrub brush. The entire island group is surrounded by a shallow reef interspersed with coral pinnacles. There is no natural freshwater.

(111) Wake Island is administered by the Department of the Interior and activities on the island are managed by the US Army under a US Air Force permit. The restrictions imposed upon the entry into the Wake Island Naval Defensive Sea Area have been suspended, except for the entry of foreign flag vessels and foreign nationals. The restrictions may be re-established without notice at any time.

(112) Wake Atoll is a U.S. possession administered by the Department of the Interior, through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and activities on the atoll are managed by the U.S. Air Force. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages Wake Atoll as a National Wildlife Refuge that encompasses the lands and waters out to 12 miles from the mean low water line of the islands. Entry to the refuge is strictly prohibited without prior approval from the Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex (See Appendix A, Department of Interior for address.) Wake Atoll National Wildlife Refuge is managed as a highly restricted marine reserve to prevent the introduction of invasive species, protect sensitive wildlife and coral reef habitats, and is subject to Federal regulations (See 50 CFR Parts 25-38 and 665). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/wake_atoll.

(113) 
 Prominent Features
(114) Two large fuel storage tanks are situated near the west end of Wake Island. An aero light is shown from an abandoned control tower situated 0.6 mile northwest of Peacock Point, the southeast extremity of Wake Island. It was reported that a ship obtained radar contact with Wake Island from a distance of 35 miles. The complete outline of the island was observed from a distance of 25 miles.

(115) 
 Channels
(116) On the seaward side, between Wake Island and Wilkes Island, there is a channel leading to a boat basin at the west extremity of Wake Island. The boat basin can accommodate three small-craft, which may serve as tugs or cargo lighters. Ships should radio their ETA 48 hours in advance. An unloading wharf is situated on the southwest side of the basin and a boat landing is at the head of the basin. Two mooring buoys are just outside the boat basin entrance channel. Cargo is discharged at the moorings. Sea conditions often permit a vessel to lie offshore and discharge dry cargo; this is reported to be the safest and best method for large vessels. Oil is discharged through a hose, floated out on barrels and connected to a fuel jetty at the east entrance point of the boat channel.

(117) 
 Anchorage
(118) The depths drop off sharply outside the atoll reef making it unsuitable for anchorage. The lagoon itself is inaccessible. The mooring facility outside the boat basin is available to all vessels having permission to call at Wake Island, but is considered hazardous. The use of an anchor is not recommended when using the mooring buoys. Vessels should not attempt to secure at the mooring buoys in an onshore or south wind. If secured to one buoy when the wind shifts to blow onshore, slip the mooring and leave the area. Any vessels moored to only one buoy must have engines on standby. Vessels should be secured to the mooring buoys with the bow headed east-southeast. Small-craft usually assist in mooring operations with the best times being at either high water or low water slack.

(119) 
 Currents
(120) A south-southwest current of 0.5 to 1 knot has been observed in the vicinity of Wake Island. There have been occasions when the currents are erratic and onshore sets have been observed. Vessels should carefully note the set and the drift of the tidal currents before attempting to moor. The tidal currents in the vicinity of the mooring buoys have been observed to set parallel to the shore at a rate of about 0.8 knot. The tidal range is from 2 to 4 feet.

(121) 
 Weather
(122) Winds from the east and northeast prevail throughout the year, with average velocities of 10 to 13 knots. Gales occur on an average of 10 days a year. By reason of its position, the atoll is subject to typhoons and tropical storms; thunderstorms seldom occur.

(123) At Wake Island, the influence of the higher latitude is noticeable and the means vary between a low of 77°F in January and February and a high of 82°F in September. In August the mean maximum reaches 88°F. Extremes above 95°F are rare.

(124) The annual average rainfall is only 37 inches, showing a great decrease in precipitation from that occurring in the lower latitudes. The monthly totals range from a January average of 1 inch in the dry season to 7 inches in August.

(125) 
 Chart 81004

(126) Mariana Islands
(127) Mariana Islands are comprised of the Northern Marianas and Guam. The Northern Marianas, a self-governing U. S. commonwealth consists of a chain of 16 volcanic islands, which extend in a north and south direction for a distance of about 450 miles. The islands in the group from norh to south are Farallon de Pajaros, Maug, Asuncion, Agrihan, Pagan, Alamagan, Guguan, Sarigan, Anatahan, Farallon de Medinilla, Saipan, Tinian, Aguijan and Rota. Except for Maug, which is a cluster of three tiny islands, all are single islands which rise precipitously as mountain peaks of rocky, volcanic material and are conspicuous from the offing. They are a good radar target from a distance of 14 miles, but are reported to give a poor return from a distance of 28 miles. Their total area is approximately 184 square miles. The three principal islands, Saipan (47 square miles), Tinian (39 square miles) and Rota (32 square miles) form two-thirds of the land area of the group.

(128) Marianas Trench Marine National Monument incorporates approximately 95,216 square miles and is comprised of the Trench, Volcanic and Island Units. Only the Islands Unit includes the waters as well as submerged lands out approximately 50 miles from the mean low water lines of the northernmost Mariana Islands of Farallon de Pajaros, Maug and Asuncion. The emergent lands of these three northern islands are not included in the monument and are under the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Permission is not required for innocent passage through these waters, however mariners should exercise extreme caution to avoid close proximity (within 1 mile) to reefs and emergent land, disturbance to wildlife, sensitive habitats, introduction of invasive species or accidental grounding. Commercial fishing is prohibited within the monument, however sustenance, recreational and traditional indigenous fishing within the Islands Unit is under consideration with a valid permit (See 50 CFR 665). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/mariana_trench_marine_national_monument and www.fpir.noaa.gov.

(129) Mariana Trench National Wildlife Refuge and Mariana Arc of Fire National Wildlife Refuge are units of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument and include only the submerged lands but not the overlying water column. Entry to the refuges is strictly prohibited without prior approval from the Pacific Reefs National Wildlife Refuge Complex (See Appendix A, Department of Interior for address.) The refuges are managed as highly restricted marine reserves to protect sensitive deep-sea wildlife and geologic features of significant scientific interest, and are subject to Federal regulations (See 50 CFR Parts 25-38). More information can be found at fws.gov/refuge/mariana_trench and fws.gov/refuge/mariana_arc_of_fire.

(129.01) 
 Caution
(129.02) Fish aggregating devices in the Northern Marianas Islands consist of an orange-colored float showing a number. Some are fitted with a white flashing light and/or a radar reflector.

(130) 
 Weather, Mariana Islands
(131) The islands of the Marianas Archipelago have similar weather conditions. Under ordinary circumstances, the wind and seas in the vicinity of Guam are easterly due to the Northeast Trades. Westerly winds are at times experienced during the summer months as Guam is barely within the limits of the Southwest Monsoon. These winds are light as a rule. In the vicinity of Guam, northeasterly and east-northeasterly winds prevail for 6 months of the year. These winds blow from the northeast to east 65% of the time between December and May, and are strongest during these months. Between June and November, the surface winds are quite variable; calms are rare. In the southerly islands, the winds show a slight southerly trend as early as May.

(132) In the vicinity of the islands of Saipan and Tinian, the steadiest winds occur when the winter monsoon and the Northeast Trades reinforce each other. Between November and April, northeast and easterly winds prevail 70% of the time at rates of 10 to 12 knots. During the summer monsoon (May to October) easterly winds predominate, but southerly to westerly winds also occur. Wind velocities are about 10 to 11 knots from May to July, and 8 knots from August to October. Land mass effect modifies the maritime diurnal variations so that the surface winds are strongest at 0300 and weakest at 1400.

(133) In the vicinity of Pagan Island, the winds are steadiest during the Northeast Monsoon (November through March). They blow mostly from the northeast at an average rate of 15 knots. From April through June, the monsoon weakens and the prevailing winds become more easterly. During the wet season (June through November), easterly winds continue to predominate, but with considerable percentages from southerly to westerly directions. The winds are mostly light; the only strong winds occurring with typhoons.

(134) Precipitation increases decidedly during the summer months, especially in the southern islands. The wet season (July through October) has a mean monthly average of 10 inches (254 mm) or more. The major rainfall consists of heavy showers. As a rule, the rainfall diminishes as the latitude increases.

(135) The rainy season at Guam is from the first of July until the early part of November, with a monthly average of 11 to 15 inches (279 to 381 mm). January through June is the driest period, with an average monthly fall of 3.9 to 6.5 inches (99 to 165 mm). March is the driest month with an average precipitation amount of 3.9 inches (99 mm). The mean average rainfall is about 101 inches annually (2565 mm) but has ranged from 165 inches (4191 mm) in 1976 to 67 inches (1702 mm) in 1973. An average of 30 thunderstorms each year effect the island of Guam. The most active month is August.

(136) The rainy season at the islands of Saipan and Tinian is from July to November; the dry season lasts from December through June. During the rainy season, with the doldrums belt lying almost directly over these islands, there are increased showers and numerous thunderstorms and squalls. The dry season is characterized by fair weather, interrupted by fronts associated with northerly low pressure centers and some showers. Saipan Island has an average rainfall of 86 inches (2184 mm) per year with a monthly average of 13 inches (330 mm). During the rainy season (July through October) it averages 13 inches (330 mm) per month. Throughout the rest of the year, the average is about 4 inches (102 mm) per month. April is the driest month with an average of about 2¾ inches (70 mm).

(137) Typhoons frequently form south and east of the Mariana Archipelago and routinely pass in the vicinity of these islands. They are apt to occur more often during the summer months and are accompanied by high winds and torrential rains. They seldom occur during the winter months.

(138) Tropical disturbances often occur in the vicinity of Guam. Since 1842, at least 51 tropical cyclones have come within 25 miles (46 km) of Guam and another 49 have come within 50 miles (93 km) of the island. Since 1980, nine tropical cyclones have come within 25 miles (46 km) of the island and another 11 within 50 miles (93 km) of the island. As recently as August 1992, before attaining super typhoon status, Typhoon Omar raked the island with winds of 105 knots and gusts in excess of 140 knots. Omar was the most damaging typhoon to strike Guam since Typhoon Pamela in 1976. Omar caused an estimated $457 million of damage and destroyed or severely damaged over 2,158 homes.

(139) Tropical disturbances occur between August and January in the vicinity of the islands of Saipan and Tinian. Since 1842, at least 51 tropical cyclones have come within 25 miles (46 km) of Saipan and another 53 have come within 50 miles (93 km) of the island. Since 1980, 15 tropical cyclones have come within 25 miles (46 km) of the island while an additional 15 have come within 50 miles (93 km) of the island. As recently as December 3, 1986, Super Typhoon Kim passed only 18 miles (33 km) north of Saipan and raked the island with 135 knot winds and record rainfall.

(140) Tropical disturbances usually pass well to the south of Pagan Island, but several have been experienced. August, September and October are the most likely months. January through April is the only period believed to be entirely free of such storms. Probably not more than one a year pass close enough to affect Pagan Island.

(141) Gales, other than those of tropical origination, seldom occur in the vicinity of the islands of Tinian and Saipan. Winds reach gale force in the vicinity of Pagan Island from 2 to 4% of the time.

(142) Thunderstorms occur frequently from July to the early part of November. December through May are the months that are relatively free from thunderstorms.

(143) In Guam, the mean temperature is 79°F (26.1°C), the mean maximum is 86°F (30°C), and the mean minimum is 72°F (22.2°C). The temperatures for the rest of the Mariana Islands are quite uniform throughout the year. January and February are the coolest months. The nights are cooler in the northern islands. Temperatures above 85°F (29.4°C) normally occur from 25 to 28 days a month between April and August. The daily minimums seldom fall below 74°F (23.3°C) during the summer months. The yearly range of temperatures is 3°F (2°C) in the south and 7°F (4°C) in the north. The daily range is about 10°F (6°C). The extreme maximum temperature on Guam is 95°F (35°C) recorded in September 1957 and the extreme minimum is 54°F (12.8°C) recorded in March 1965.

(144) In Saipan, the mean temperature is 82°F (27.8°C), the mean maximum is 86° (30°C), and the mean minimum is 77°F (25°C). Extremes include a maximum of 104°F (40°C) recorded in May 1977 and September 1987 and an extreme minimum of 60°F (15.6°C) recorded in March 1975.

(145) Humidity is high throughout the year, but there is somewhat less humidity from December through May. The yearly average is about 76%. The January average is 68% and the June average is 84%.

(146) Fog and mist are rarely reported in the Guam, Saipan- Tinian areas. Visibility of less than ¼ miles (2 km) can be expected on less than one day per month. The occurrence of fog averages only one to two days each year.

(147) The yearly average cloud cover is about 7/10 (70%). The maximum coverage of 8/10 to 9/10 occurs during the summer months (July to October). Cloudiness is higher over the islands than over the adjacent seas. Clouds are more frequent during the daytime.

(148) 
 Tides and currents
(149) See Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) for the Pacific Ocean and Southeast Asia (Pub. 120) for general information on tides, currents and tidal currents in the region.

(150) Currents in the vicinity of the Mariana Islands are for the most part westerly. They are strongest near to and south of Saipan Island, and gradually become weaker north of that island. In June, the Equatorial Drift Current was reported to be strongest during that season in the parallel of 13° N. and to run to the northwest at a maximum rate of 1 knot. In October, a westerly current of 1 knot to 1½ knots was reported to have been experienced up to 20 miles east of Guguan Island, but little or no current was experienced north of that island.

(151) Variable currents are sometimes encountered near the islands. These are caused by the physical makeup of the island and by the additional force of the tidal currents.

(152) An almost constant southwesterly set has been reported along the northwest coast of Guam during the Northeast Trades. This current has been felt up to 10 miles offshore.

(153) In the vicinity of the Mariana Islands, the flood current usually sets westerly and ebb easterly; the tidal currents turn at the approximate times of high and low water. These currents are usually weak, except in narrow passages, and their directions and rates are sometimes variable. The tidal currents are usually confused and irregular off the east sides of these islands, due to the configuration of the land.

(154) 
 Chart 81048

(155) Guam (13°25'N., 144°44'E.), a U.S. territory since 1898, is not included in the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas. The largest and southernmost island of the Marianas Archipelago, Guam is about 30 miles long and varies from 4 to 8 miles in width. The north end of the island is a plateau of rolling hills set on vertical cliffs rising to about 490 feet above sea level; the plateau is covered with a thick growth of jungle.

(155.01) Over a greater part of its shoreline, Guam is fringed by a reef which dries in spots. From a distance the island appears flat and even. The east side is bordered by steep cliffs. The south end of the island consists of high volcanic hills which are, for the most part, covered with sword grass. The highest hills are found in the central and south parts of the island. The highest peaks are Mount Lamlam, 1,332 feet high and Jumullong Manglo, with a height of 1,282 feet, lying 5.5 miles north-northwest of the south end. In the central range are Mount Tenjo, 1,020 feet high, about 5.8 miles north-northeast of Jumullong Manglo. Mount Alutom, about 1 mile north-northeast of Mount Tenjo, 1,074 feet high, and Mount Chachao, close north of Mount Alutom, 1,042 feet high, are the highest peaks in that range. The north end of the island is a plateau of rolling hills set on vertical cliffs rising to about 490 feet above sea level. The plateau is covered with a thick growth of jungle.

(155.02) Cocos Island (13°14'N., 144°39'E.) is located on the south part of Cocos Lagoon a reef that projects about 2.5 miles southwest from the southwest end of Guam. Babe Island stands on the reef, about 0.8 mile east of Cocos Island.

(155.03) Port Merizo suitable only for small craft, is entered through Mamaon Channel on the north side of Cocos Lagoon. Two private lighted buoys mark the entrance to the channel.

(155.04) ​Umatac Bay (13°18'N., 144°39'E.), entered about 0.5 miles north of the southwest end of Guam, is small and exposed to west winds and seas. A reef extends about 0.1 mile west of the south entrance point of the bay. The north entrance point is an isolated rocky elevation, on which there is a ruined fort. A ruined fort stands on the hill northeast of the point. Magellan’s Monument stands at the head of the harbor. A prominent church spire is situated northwest of the monument.

(155.05) Anchorage can be taken, in 7.5 fathoms, sand and shells, with Machadgan Point bearing 163° distant 0.17 mile.

(155.06) Cetti Bay entered about 0.8 mile north of Umatac Bay, has depths over 4.5 fathoms for about halfway inside the entrance, where it shoals quickly to the head.

(155.07) Facpi Point (13°20'N., 144°38'E.) terminates in an isolated rock joined to the shore by a drying reef; an elevated tank stands near the point.

(155.08) Agat Bay entered about 4 miles north of Facpi Point, affords good sheltered anchorage during northeast and east winds. Apaca Point stands at the head of the bay. A shoal, with a depth of 2.5 fathoms, lies about 0.4 mile west of Apaca Point.

(155.09) 
 Charts 81048, 81054

(156) Apra Harbor situated midway along the west coast of Guam, is the main berthing facility on the island, consisting of a commercial harbor, a naval complex, and a repair facility. The harbor is comprised of two main areas; Apra Inner Harbor and Apra Outer Harbor. Apra Outer Harbor is the principal commercial port for the island. Apra Inner Harbor houses the U.S. Naval facility and a commercial ship repair facility. Glass Breakwater forms the north and northwest sides of Apra Outer Harbor and acts as a barrier against most ocean swells from the north and west. The seaward end of the breakwater is marked by a light. The harbor is extensive and safe, except during typhoon season. During this time, vessels should be prepared to get underway at short notice. Vessels are urged to contact the local authorities, and the pilot for the latest information on depths, currents and regulations concerning entry and navigation of this harbor.

(157) 
 Prominent features
(158) Orote Point the west end of Orote Peninsula is a sharp bluff about 210 feet high. Orote Island lies close off the north side of the point. Orote Point Light (13°26'47"N., 144°37'11"E.), 226 feet above the water is shown from a concrete tower with a black and white diamond-shaped dayboard on Orote Point. The light may be obscured by land features on a southern approach. A 200-foot radio tower is southwest of Orote Point Light in about 13°26'45"N., 144°37'10"E.

(159) 
 COLREGS Demarcation Lines
(160) The lines established for Apra Harbor are described in 33 CFR 80.1490 chapter 2.

(160.01) 
 Routes
(160.02) Vessels from the north should keep 5 miles offshore until Orote Point bears 180° then steer for a position 2 miles west of the harbor entrance. Approaching from the west, Mount Alutom bearing 097° and in line with Orote Point, leads to a position 2 miles west of the harbor entrance, but is not easily identified. Vessels should enter Apra Outer Harbor on the entrance range, passing midway between the two lighted buoys at the entrance. Vessels are cautioned to give the breakwater a wide berth because of the currents and of possible submerged broken-off segments.

(161) 
 Anchorages
(161.01) Anchorage outside Apra Harbor is impossible due to the great depths and rapid shoaling of the bottom.

(162) Naval, explosive, special and general anchorages are in Apra Outer Harbor. (See 33 CFR 110.1 110.238 and 110.129a chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(163) <Deleted Paragraph>

(164) 
 Channels
(165) The approaches to the harbor are free and deep, as is the channel between the breakwaters. The entrance to Apra Outer Harbor is marked by lights, lighted buoys, and a 083.6° lighted range. The entrance to Apra Inner Harbor is marked by lighted buoys and a 141° lighted range and a 176° lighted range. In the morning when the sun is high, the aids to navigation here are difficult to identify due to haze and refraction. The range marking the channel through Outer Harbor is readily visible within 2 miles of the harbor entrance in normal haze conditions.

(166) 
 Regulated navigation areas
(167) Regulated navigation areas have been established in the approach and in Apra Outer Harbor. (See 33 CFR 165.1405 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(168) Safety zones and security zones have been established in Apra Outer Harbor. (See 33 CFR 165.1401 and 165.1404 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(169) Apra Inner Harbor and an area just west of the entrance to the Inner Harbor are included in a restricted area. (See 33 CFR 334.1 through 334.6 and 334.1430 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.) A harbor security barrier gate marked by two uncharted buoys, has been installed across the entrance to Apra Inner Harbor between the outermost ends of Wharves L and B.

(170) 
 Caution
(171) The restricted area of a Firing Danger Zone extends offshore about 1 mile south of Orote Point and off the southwest coast of the island. (See 33 CFR 334.1420 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.) An acoustic range facility is south of the restricted area and a submarine operating area surrounds most of the island. Submerged submarine operations are conducted at various times in these waters; proceed with caution.

(172) 
 Tides and Currents
(173) The mean tidal range at Apra Harbor is 1.6 feet, while the spring range is 2.3 feet. On the approach to Orote Point, the southwest current associated with the Northeast Trades tends to curve to the south and southeast. The rate of the current is greatly affected by the force of the wind. During the typhoon season, the outgoing current from the harbor augments the southwest current and reduces any northeast current that may occur. Strong rips may be observed under these conditions. The prevalent set of the current at the harbor entrance is usually south or southwest regardless of the tidal currents, but a set to the north or northeast may be experienced, especially during the summer months. The flood current in the harbor entrance sets north to north-northeast at a maximum rate of 1.5 knots. The ebb current sometimes attains a maximum rate of 3 knots. Slack water occurs 30 minutes before low water and 45 minutes before high water. Heavy west swells sometimes make the entrance of Apra Outer Harbor dangerous. This condition occurs when a typhoon builds up in the area, progresses to the northwest, and then curves northeast. Beacons and buoys are sometimes destroyed or carried away at such times. The currents and tidal currents within the harbor are weak and variable.

(173.01) A cross-current is often experienced in the entrance. Care should be taken to keep on the entrance range. A speed of not less than 10 knots is recommended through the entrance to avoid the excessive set by the currents off the entrance.

(174) 
 Pilotage
(175) Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 500 gross tons and all vessels entering the port for the first time and after daylight hours. Pilot services are available on a 24-hour basis for Apra Harbor. Pilots are required to board inbound vessels and leave outbound vessels at Alpha Hotel Pilot Station (13°26'52"N., 144°35'16"E.), about 2 miles west of Orote Point, to insure that the vessel is properly aligned on the entrance range; the station is unmarked.

(176) 
 Towage
(177) Tugs to 3,200 hp are available in Apra Harbor.

(178) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration, and agricultural quarantine
(179) Apra Harbor is a customs and U.S. immigration port of entry. U.S. immigration regulations apply and are enforced by U.S. Customs and Border Protection; telephone 671–472–7138, fax 671–472–7139. U.S. Customs regulations are enforced by:

(180) Department of Customs, Government of Guam

(181) Customs and Quarantine Agency

(182) PO Box 21828

(183) GMF, Barrigada, GU 96921

(184) telephone 671–475–6202

(185) 
 Coast Guard
(186) The Coast Guard Communications Center is a full-service communications station. The center is monitored 24 hours and can be contacted on VHF-FM channel 16 or 9, call sign NRV. A Sector Office and Station are located on the U.S. Naval base and can also be contacted on VHF-FM channel 16 or 9 (24 hours); telephone 671–355–4821.

(187) 
 Harbor Regulations
(188) All operations in Apra Outer Harbor are under the jurisdiction of The Port Authority of Guam and The United States Coast Guard. Prior to entry all vessels must establish communications with Guam Port Control Harbormaster's office on VHF-FM channels 12, 13 or 16; call sign WRV-574. The phone number for Guam Port Control Harbormaster's Office is 671–477–8697.

(189) All operations in Apra Inner Harbor are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Navy Port Control Harbormaster's Office with communication on VHF-FM channels 14 and 16. The phone number is 671–339–6141.

(190) Vessels entering, leaving or shifting berth are required to give a minimum of 24 hours notice to The Port Authority of Guam Harbor Master and US Coast Guard Captain of the Port. Failure to give such notice is a basis for denying entry. No vessel shall enter or leave the harbor without radio clearance from the Harbormaster. Vessels must be ISPS/MTSA compliant.

(191) A tug boat (or tugs) shall be used by all commercial vessels, exceeding 250 feet in overall length entering, leaving, or operating within the harbor, except research vessels and vessels up to 300 feet in overall length equipped with an operational bow thruster. A fishing vessel's use of a skiff boat in lieu of a tug boat is permitted provided there is constant communication between the skiff operator and the vessel Master.

(192) Speed is limited to no more than 12 knots in Outer Harbor and no more than 5 knots in Inner Harbor, except in emergency situations.

(193) 
 Wharves
(194) Guam’s commercial port is situated on Cabras Island in Outer Harbor. The Port Authority of Guam, an autonomous agency of the Government of Guam, is responsible for the management of the port’s 33-acre site. The facility offers 0.15 mile of docking space for container, break-bulk, fishing and passenger vessels. The Guam Economic and Development Authority administers the Cabras Island Industrial Park adjacent to the Commercial Port, which includes a fuel wharf and a floating dry dock. The commercial port offers alongside depths of 5.3 to 10.8 fathoms.

(194.01) Tank vessels discharge at the Mobil Pier (Wharf G), which has a length of 68m and an alongside depth of 9.6 fathoms, and also at the GIROCO Pier (Wharf F-1), which has a length of 797 feet and an alongside depth of 10.8 fathoms. The Mobil Pier is situated about 0.2 mile west of the root of Glass Breakwater, while the GIROCO Pier is positioned about 0.3 mile southeast of the Mobil Pier.

(195) 
 Supplies
(196) Apra Harbor is the principal supply center for the region. Water is available at most wharves. Bunker fuel is available at Golf Pier, Berths F-1 and F-3 and by tanker truck.

(197) 
 Repairs
(198) Apra Harbor has a floating dry dock that can handle a maximum LOA of 700 feet. Guam Shipyard, PO Box 13010, Bldg. 20 Comnavmar, Santa Rita, GU 96915-3010; telephone 671–339–1101 or 671–339–5258.

(198.01) 
 Chart 81048

(198.02) Asan Point (13°28'N., 144°42'E.) is rocky, steep and fringed by a reef. A large rock stands on the outer end of the reef.

(199) Hagatna Bay 8 miles north-northeast of Apra Harbor, is formed by a slight indentation of the coast between Adelup Point and Oca Point. The shores of the bay are low, sandy and fringed by a wide reef. Hagatna, the capital of Guam, stands along the shores of the bay. The city consists of a large number of buildings, some of considerable height.

(200) Hagatna small boat harbor is on the south side Hagatna Bay and is approached from the north directly offshore through the reef. An entrance channel leads south between two breakwaters to a turning basin inside. In 2012, the controlling depths were 12 feet in the entrance and turning basin. The entrance through the reef is marked by lights and a 186.8° lighted range. Mariners unfamiliar with the channel should not attempt entrance without assistance or during other than daylight hours with favorable conditions. Assistance can be requested from the Hagatna Harbor Patrol on 2136 kHz daily from 0600 to 1400.

(201) Anchorage, with winds between the east-northeast and south, may be obtained in Hagatna Bay; however, it is an open roadstead with a steep-to bottom and great depths. A strong current has been reported off Adelup Point.

(201.01) The shore between Oca Point (13°30'N., 144°46'E.) and Ritidian Point the north extremity of Guam, is rocky and steep.

(201.02) Tumon Bay is entered between Ypao Point and Amantes Point and is nearly inaccessible, except for boats with local knowledge. A water tank, painted red, stands about 0.5 mile inland of the bay’s head.

(201.03) The north coast of Guam, between Ritidian Point and Pati Point is reef-fringed and fully exposed to the Northeast Trades.

(201.04) The east shore of Guam, from Pati Point to Talofofo Bay is rugged and steep. This stretch of coastline affords no shelter—the only openings being Ylig Bay and Pago Bay—and should be avoided during the Northeast Monsoon.

(201.05) Ylig Bay is entered through a deep channel, about 197 feet wide. The reef on either side of the entrance uncovers at half tide and is marked by breakers. The bottom shoals abruptly midway between the outer reef and the head of the bay. Reefs, foul ground and shoals are found along the side of the channel. The Ylig River discharges into the head of the bay. A narrow sandy beach extends north from its mouth. A vessel anchored, in 40 fathoms, good holding ground, just outside the entrance of the bay.

(201.06) Talofofo Bay (13°20'N., 144°46'E.), entered nearly 4 miles south of Ylig Bay, affords shelter in its entrance in depths of 8 fathoms, mud; depths decrease gradually to its head. This bay has steep hills on all sides. Those on the north side rise sharply to 410 feet, with a prominent cliff forming the summit. The Talofofo River the largest in Guam, discharges into the head of the bay.

(201.07) Inarajan Bay entered about 4 miles southwest of Talofofo Bay, is open to the southeast, but affords shelter to small craft with local knowledge during west winds. The reef fringing the southwest side of the harbor is steep-to. There is a sandy beach at the head of the bay. The spire of a church near the village of Inarajan situated on the southwest side of the harbor, is prominent. The depths decrease sharply from 12 to 3 fathoms when within about 0.2 mile of the entrance. Reefs and foul ground are found on each side of the inner bay. A shoal, with a depth of 2.8 fathoms, lies close offshore, south of the south entrance point.

(201.08) Agfayan Bay lying 1.5 miles north-northest of Aga Point open east and small, is only suitable for small vessels with local knowledge. This bay may afford anchorage for vessels with drafts less than 15 feet with local knowledge. There is a prominent rock on the south side of the bay.

(201.09) ​Ajayan Bay entered on the west side of Aga Point, the southeast end of Guam, is obstructed by reefs and is dangerous to approach if there is any sea.

(202) 
 Chart 81063

(203) Rota Island (14°10'N., 145°12'E.), of volcanic formation, is about 32 miles northeast of Guam. The northeast part consists of a plateau 522 feet high; southwesterly part is a low sandy isthmus. The shore of Rota is generally steep and rocky except at the southwest tip; a narrow coral reef nearly fringes the entire island. Rota rises to 1,611 feet in its west-central part.

(204) 
 Caution
(205) A naval operating area is off the northeast shore of Rota.

(206) 
 Tidal currents
(207) The diurnal inequality is considerable. The flood attains a rate of ½ knot. The flood sets southerly, the ebb northerly; turning at about the time of high and low water.

(208) Harnom Point (Puntan Taipingot) (14°07'N., 145°07'E.) is the south end of Taipingot a prominent headland with a distinct ‘wedding cake’ shape, which forms the southwesterly end of Rota Island.

(209) Sasanlagu situated on the northwest side of the Taipingot Peninsula, affords some shelter during southeasterly winds. Rota West Harbor on the southeast side of Sasanlagu and 0.5 mile southwest of the village of Rota (Song Song), is the only commercial port serving the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. An entrance channel, marked by a 118° lighted range, leads southeast to a turning basin inside the harbor. In 2007, the entrance channel had a controlling depth of 18 feet and the turning basin had depths of 11 to 14 feet except for shoaling to 6 feet in the east corner of the basin.) A strong current runs along the coast in a southwest direction. It is funneled between Mafuiion Rock and the fringing reef causing extreme difficulties in bringing vessels into the port. Entering the port except at slack tide is not recommended without local knowledge.

(210) Pilotage is compulsory for vessels greater than 300 gross tonnage. There are no pilots in Rota but pilotage can be arranged by contacting Saipan Marine Corporation at 670–322–7345/46/51. Arrival at night is not permitted. There is no anchorage inside Rota West Harbor, however, anchorage can be permitted outside the harbor by contacting Rota Port Control on VHF-FM channels 13 or 16. Tugs and barges are not available in Rota. Pilots require a vessel with twin screws or a single screw with strong bowthruster to enter the harbor. Vessels over 236 feet do not have swinging room inside the basin.

(211) Rota West Harbor has two berthing facilities: Berth 1 is 150 feet in length, 16 feet alongside and Berth 2 is 100 feet in length, 11 feet alongside. Forklifts to 3 tons and an 80-ton crane are available at the harbor. Stevedoring services are available by Rota Terminal & Transfer (RT&T), Monday-Saturday, and can be contacted at 670–532–3117 or 670–532–5270. The harbor is owned and operated by the Commonwealth Ports Authority (CPA). Hours of operation are Monday-Saturday 0730 to 1630. Other times may be arranged by contacting the CPA (670–532–9497/89) and other agencies needed to provide port services. Advance notice of at least 24 hours is required to provide adequate services. A boat ramp and several small boat slips are available in the harbor.

(212) 
 Quarantine, customs, immigration, and agricultural quarantine
(213) Customs, quarantine, and immigration offices are in Rota West Harbor. Hours of operation are Monday-Saturday 0730 to 1630 for customs and quarantine, Monday-Friday 0730 to 1630 for immigration. Other times may be arranged by calling: customs office 670–532–9484/88, quarantine office 670–532–3415/9494, immigration office 670–532–9436.

(214) Sasanhaya is a bay on the east side of Taipingot and south of the village of Rota. Anchorage can be had in Sasanhaya, however, a swell sets in with winds from any direction except northeast. When northeasterly winds are strong, they often blow down from the steep slopes at the inner part of the bay. Anchorage may be found in depths of 16 fathoms, about 0.4 mile south of the village of Rota (Song Song). During northeasterly winds, good anchorage may be found on the east side of the bay.

(215) 
 Off-lying Danger
(216) A bank with a depth of 22 fathoms is about 120 miles, 273° from Harnom Point (Puntan Taipingot).

(217) 
 Charts 81004, 81067

(218) Aguijan Island (14°51'N., 145°33'E.) is about 022° 42 miles from Rota Island, and it has steep, cliffy and inaccessible shores. Naftan Rock is about ½ mile southwest of the island’s southwest end.

(219) 
 Off-lying banks and dangers
(220) Esmeralda Bank about 17 miles northwest of Aguijan Island, has a least depth of about 33 fathoms, and can be recognized by the discoloration of the water, which has the appearance of sulphur being emitted. A 30 fathom bank, marked by boiling sulphur, is about 20 miles northwest of Aguijan Island. Other banks with greater depths are charted in this vicinity.

(221) A bank, with a depth of 19 fathoms over it, is about 5 miles southwest of Aguijan Island.

(222) Tatsumi Reef centered about 2 miles southeast of the southern end of Tinian Island, is on the northeast side of Tinian Channel. A patch with a depth of 13 fathoms over it is 14 miles west of the north end of Tinian Island.

(223) 
 Charts 81067, 81071

(224) Tinian Island (15°00'N., 145°38'E.) is northeast of Aguijan Island and it is separated from it by Tinian Channel. The north end of the island is low and flat.

(225) Tinian Island is an experimental cattle raising center. The island is extensively cultivated; vegetables and produce are shipped to Guam. Tinian is a transfer point for tuna purse seiners. An inter-island tug and barge reportedly visits the island several times a week. The population was 3,540 (2000).

(226) 
 Prominent features
(227) Lasso Hill 564 feet high, is the summit of the island and lies about 3¾ miles south of the north end of Tinian Island. Maga Hill a mile northwest of Lasso Hill, is joined to the latter by a ridge. The land south of this ridge is sloping and for the most part cultivated. Several radio towers are prominent on the slope west of Maga Hill.

(228) An extensive ridge is located along the east side of the south part of the island, between Puntan Carolinas and Puntan Masalok. The coast between these points is faced by a sheer cliff. The broad and cultivated land in the central part of the island gives way to narrow and successively lower terraces near the coast. These levels are separated by steep slopes or cliffs. Sandy beaches are found near the town of Tinian and in the bay between Puntan Masalok and Puntan Asiga.

(229) Many charted landmarks were either nonexistent or were overgrown with foliage (1963).

(230) Tinian Harbor is the name given to the area lying off the southwestern shore of Tinian Island, fronting the town, and including the swept area best shown on the chart.


(232) The inner harbor area off Tinian is protected from the sea by a breakwater constructed on the reef that fronts the town. The north end of the breakwater was in ruins (2005). An entrance channel, marked by lighted and unlighted buoys, is entered about ½ mile south of the head of the breakwater and leads northeast and northwest to a basin off the town of Tinian. A smokestack is about 0.6 mile north-northwest of the inner harbor in about 14°58'25"N., 145°36'55"E.

(233) 
 Routes
(234) A course of 035° leads through the first leg of the channel to a position southeast of the outer end of the breakwater, then a course of 336° leads to the main quay.

(235) 
 Anchorages
(236) Anchorage may be found, in depths of 10 to 20 fathoms, sand and coral, good holding ground, off Tinian; however, it is unsafe during the Southwest Monsoon. During westerly winds anchorage may be found in a bay on the northeast side of Tinian Island between Puntan Masalok and Puntan Asiga, in depths of 15 to 25 fathoms; however, this anchorage is reported untenable during strong easterly and northeasterly winds.

(237) Explosive anchorages are off the west shore of Tinian Island, off Puntan Diapblo (See 33 CFR 110.239 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(238) A security zone is off the west shore of Tinian Island, between Puntan Diapblo and the village of Tinian (See 33 CFR 165.1403 chapter 2, for limits and regulations).

(239) 
 Tides and Currents
(240) At times the tides will become diurnal around the time of the moon’s maximum declination. The currents set northwest on the flood and southeast on the ebb; attaining rates of about a knot and turning at about the times of high and low water.

(241) 
 Pilotage
(242) Vessels must obtain permission and acquire a pilot from the authorities at Saipan before entering the harbor. Entering and exiting port is permitted only during daylight hours and “Tinian Port Control” monitors VHF-FM channel 16.

(243) 
 Wharves
(244) The Main Quay has a length 2,000 feet with depths of 17 to 20 feet alongside. Pier 1 and Pier 2, off the northwest side of Main Quay, were reported in ruins and unserviceable in 2005.

(245) 
 Charts 81067, 81071, 81076

(246) Saipan Island (15°10'N., 145°45'E.), the second largest of the Mariana Islands, is northeast of Tinian Island and is separated from it by Saipan Channel. Saipan Channel is deep and clear of known dangers.

(247) 
 Prominent features
(248) A chain of mountains, the summit of which is Okso‘ Takpochao 1,555 feet high, a conspicuous, conical, extinct volcano, lines the center of the island in a north-south direction. The east peninsula and the south part of the island are low flat plateaus. Some relatively level areas are found on the north end and northwest and west sides of the island, between the coast and the lower slopes of the ridge. These areas are, for the most part, cultivated. The land on the west and northwest sides slopes down to the beaches. The northeast and southeast shores of the island are formed by rugged, rocky cliffs.

(249) The west and northwest shores are fronted by barrier reefs, within which are shallow lagoons. Detached dangers and foul ground containing many coral heads, with depths of 3 fathoms or less, extend about a mile southwest from the southwest extremity of the barrier reef that fronts the northwesterly end of the island. A number of detached dangers lie south of this foul ground, along the edges of the swept anchorages areas.

(250) Vessels approaching the island will first sight Okso‘ Takpochao. Vessels passing south of the island will next sight Fina‘ Sisu the 295-foot summit, located 2¾ miles south-southwest of the above peak. This summit, when first seen, appears as a detached island. Isleta Managaha located off the northwest coast, appears as a destroyer when viewed from the west.

(251) An abandoned lighthouse, 43 feet high, white circular concrete structure, stands at an elevation of 375 feet, about a mile northeastward of the pier at Garapan. Two radio masts, marked by obstruction lights, are close to the abandoned lighthouse. Five radio towers are on Puntan Agingan and are reported to serve as one of the most visible landmarks on Saipan.

(252) Saipan Harbor is reported to be radar conspicuous at a distance of about 20 miles.

(253) Saipan Harbor (15°12'N., 145°41'E.), lying on the west side of Saipan Island, includes the outer anchorage Garapan Anchorage and the inner harbor, Puetton Tanapag.


(255) 
 Routes
(256) Vessels entering Puetton Tanapag should make the approach with the light on Isleta Managaha ahead bearing 044° passing on either side of the fairway buoy. When approaching Lighted Buoy No. 3, course should be altered to 088° with the harbor entrance lighted range lined up. This course leads into and through the harbor.

(257) 
 Channels
(258) The northern part of Saipan Harbor, Puetton Tanapag is entered through a dredged channel that leads northeast, then turns east to a turning basin. The entrance channel is marked lighted buoys and by a sector light—the channel to the turning basin is marked by lighted/unlighted buoys and a 088.1° lighted range. In 2009-2010, the controlling depth was 36 feet in the channel to the basin, thence depths of 32 of 40 feet were available in the basin.

(258.01) Vessels are urged to contact the local authorities and pilots for the latest information on depths, currents and regulations concerning entry and navigation of this harbor.

(259) 
 Anchorages
(260) The outer anchorage affords shelter during prevailing easterly winds, but none during infrequent westerly storms. This anchorage, which lies from 3 to 5 miles offshore, is suitable only as a temporary anchorage for large vessels. The inner anchorage, which includes Garapan Anchorage, contains numerous berths with depths ranging from 25 to 100 feet, holding ground fair to good, with coarse coral sand. This anchorage lies from 1 to 2 miles offshore. Vessels can anchor in 10 fathoms, sand bottom, about 0.8 mile offshore, abreast Fina‘ Sisu, off the village of Chalan Kanoa. Vessels can anchor in 12 to 14 fathoms, coral bottom, in a position about 1.5 miles off Garapan. The anchorage area in Puetton Tanapag has depths ranging from 12 to 30 feet. A seaplane landing area is northward of the anchorage area.

(261) 
 Regulated navigation area
(262) A security zone has been established in Saipan Harbor. (See 33 CFR 165.1405 chapter 2, for limits and regulations.)

(263) 
 Caution
(264) A sewer outfall extends from a position about 200 yards southwest of the southwest corner of Pier C to a position about 600 yards north-northwest of the northwest corner of the same pier.

(265) Unexploded ordnance has been reported to lie within Anchorage Berth L8.

(266) Okino Reef (15°12'41"N., 145°41'48"E.), an isolated shallow area in Garapan Anchorage, has a least depth of 6 feet and is marked by a buoy on the west side.

(267) Some mooring buoys and many wrecks are in the harbor.

(268) Two mooring buoys are just outside the reef off Puntan Susupi.

(269) 
 Tidal Currents
(270) The mean maximum tidal range is about 2.6 feet and the minimum range is about 0.7 feet. Tidal currents in Saipan Channel set northwesterly at a rate of 2½ knots on the flood and southeasterly at 1¼ knots on the ebb; turning at about the times of high and low water. In the outer anchorage of Saipan Harbor, the tidal currents are irregular, with a maximum west-northwest set of about 2 knots during the flood. In Garapan Anchorage, the tidal currents set northerly at rates of ½ to 1 knot during the flood and southwesterly at rates of ½ to ¾ knot during the ebb. In Puetton Tanapag the tidal currents set north on the flood and south on the ebb, neither exceeding a rate of ¾ knot. They appear to turn at times of high and low water.

(271) 
 Pilotage
(272) Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 300 gross tons and over. Pilots require a 24-hour notice and board vessels in the vicinity of Tanapag Harbor Approach Lighted Buoy T.

(272.01) 
 Harbormaster
(272.02) The Harbormaster Control Tower is manned 24 hours and may be contacted on VHF-FM channel 16 or 670–322–9973.

(273) 
 Wharves
(274) The port provides 2,600 linear feet of berthing space, and a 22-acre container yard. Water, fuel, electricity and sewage pump-out are available. A marina is about 0.5 mile southwest of the port facilities.

(275) Bahia Laolao (Bahia Laulau) is on the southeast side of Saipan Island affording the only shelter with the wind between west and north, but due to excessive depths it can not be recommended. Vessels may obtain anchorage in a depth of about 30 fathoms, about 600 yards offshore, south of the village of Laulau.

(276) 
 Off-lying banks and dangers
(277) A bank, with a depth of 26 fathoms is about 9½ miles north-northeast of Puntan Sabaneta (15°17'N., 145°49'E.).

(278) 
 Charts 81004, 81086, 81092

(279) Arakane Reef (15°38'N., 145°45'E.),. about 175 miles west of Saipan Island, is a coral reef with a least depth of 30 feet over it. In 1945, a heavy swell was observed over Arakane Reef; discoloration was very noticeable. In 1969, mooring buoys were reported to be upon this reef.

(280) Farallon de Medinilla (16°01'N., 146°05'E.) 265 feet high, and guano-covered, has steep coasts forming precipes. Deep caves are found on the south and west shores. A chasm, located in the southern part of the island, separates that part from the north. Farallon de Medinilla was reported to be radar conspicuous from a distance of 23 miles.

(281) A rocky bank, with a least depth of 8.7 fathoms, is about 0.3 mile northeast of the north end of the island. Another bank with least depth of 3.9 fathoms is about 1.3 miles north of the island; the bank is marked by breakers in heavy weather. In 1964, a depth of 10 fathoms was reported about 9 miles west-northwest of the north end of Farallon de Medinilla.

(282) 
 Caution
(283) Farallon de Medinilla is used as a bombing and strafing target complex by the U.S. Navy. Mariners are advised to avoid the area by as wide a margin as is practicable.

(284) Anatahan Island (16°22'N., 145°40'E), 2,585 feet high, is about 20 miles northwest of Farallon de Medinilla, and is of volcanic formation. The crater of a dormant volcano, which contains a wide grass-covered field, forms the summit of the island. The crater wall has a peak on its east and west sides; the west one being quite sharp.

(285) Small vessels can anchor off the northern part of the west coast of Anatahan Island, about 600 yards offshore. A bank, with a depth of 37 fathoms over it, is about 18 miles east of Anatahan Island. In 1974, another bank with a depth of 35 fathom was reported to lie about 10 miles farther north-northeast of the island.

(286) In 1967, a depth of 12 fathoms was reported in 17°08'N., 143°15'E. An 8 fathom patch has been reported to be in 16°31'N., 143°08'E.

(287) Sarigan Island (16°43'N., 145°47'E.), lying about 20 miles northeast of Anatahan Island, is cone-shaped, wooded, and of volcanic origin; rising to a height of 1,801 feet in its southern part.

(288) A bank, with a depth of 12 fathoms is 5 miles north of Sarigan Island.

(289) Zealandia Bank about 11 miles north-northeast of Sarigan Island, is comprised of two rocks that dry, lying ½ mile apart. The sea breaks on these rocks at all times and the breakers can be seen from a distance. It was reported that there was a depth of 11 fathoms around both rocks, and that there are no other dangers. A bank, with a depth of 51 fathoms over it, is 9 miles northwest of Zealandia Bank.

(290) Guguan Island (17°19'N., 145°51'E.), lying about 35 miles north of Sarigan Island, has two summits; the southern is 988 feet, the north is 814 feet high, and is an active volcano. Guguan Island is reported to be a good radar target from a distance of 27 miles. A large quantity of sulphur covers the ground around the crater. When seen from east or west, the northern summit appears to be covered with snow. The coasts are steep, and there is vegetation and breadfruit trees.

(291) Alamagan Island (17°36'N., 145°50'E.), lying 15 miles north of Guguan Island, is an inactive volcano with two peaks; the higher being 2,441 feet. The island is reported to be radar conspicuous at a distance of 31 miles. The shores are lined with rocks and the southeast side is a steep slope of bare lava. There is a hot spring at the north end of the west coast.

(292) Shoals with depths 35 and 26 fathoms were reported (1946 and 1970, respectively) to lie about 165 miles west of Alamagan Island. A bank, with a least depth of 4 fathoms over it, is in about 18°05'58"N., 143°07'36"E.

(293) 
 Anchorage
(294) Anchorage may be found, during northeasterly winds, off the southwest side of Alamagan Island, about 600 yards offshore, in 12 fathoms, sand bottom.

(295) Pagan Island (18°07'N., 145°47'E.) lying about 30 miles north of Alamagan Island, has two active volcanoes. Mount Pagan 1,870 feet high, rises in the northern and larger segment of the island. Several volcanic cones, some of which give off steam, are located in the southern part of the island. A hot spring lies on the eastern side of the southern part of the island. The two parts of the island are connected by a narrow, but high, isthmus. The island is rugged, except for a low level marshland lying south of Mount Pagan. Two lakes are located between the mountain and the northwest coast. The western lake, which is separated from the sea by a sand bar,50 yards wide, is salty. The shores of the island are steep and rocky, except for some sandy beaches along Apaan Bay. Casuarina and coconut trees grow along most of the coastline and lower slopes, but the upper and steeper slopes of the volcanoes appear almost barren. Apaan Bay is an open bight off the middle of the west side of Pagan Island. The beach is for the most part steep, exposed to surf, and has a thick growth of shrubs. Shomushon a settlement which contains most of the population of the island, is located at the head of a small inlet that indents the northern end of the bay.

(296) 
 Anchorage
(297) Anchorage may be found in Apaan Bay in a depth of about 60 feet, southwest of Bandeera Rock. Bandeera is a prominent rock, 161 feet high, lying 600 yards northwest of Shomushon. This anchorage is sheltered from winds between northeasterly and easterly, but during westerly winds heavy seas set in, making the anchorage dangerous.

(298) A 24-foot shoal is about 800 yards south-southwest of Bandeera Rock. A shoal, with depths less than 36 feet over it, projects 400 yards south-southwest from the 24-foot shoal.

(299) Agrihan Island (18°46'N., 145°40'E.), lying about 33 miles north of Pagan Island, has two peaks. The highest peak rises to 3,166 feet. The island is of volcanic origin and has a large crater. The southwest side forms a gentle slope with a shore of black sand. Agrihan a small settlement, is located near the southwest end of the island. A prominent church is about a mile northwest of the southern extremity of Agrihan Island. It was reported that the island was visible from a distance of 26 miles. Agrihan Island serves as a good radar target from a distance of 31 miles. A westerly current with a rate of 1¼ knots was observed in August, in a position about 6 miles northwesterly of Agrihan Island.

(300) 
 Anchorage
(301) Anchorage may be taken in 14 fathoms, sand and gravel bottom, about 650 yards off the beach fronting the settlement of Agrihan; however, it is unsafe during strong southerly or westerly winds, when there is a heavy swell.

(302) Asuncion Island (19°40'N., 145°24'E.), lying about 55 miles north of Agrihan Island, is a volcanic cone rising steeply to a height of 2,923 feet. White smoke occasionally emits from this cone. On the northeast and east sides there are some prominent crevices and broken cliffs, from the cracks in which smoke emits. The slope is gentle at the southwestern foot of the mountain, and coconut palms grow sparsely amongst dense stunted trees. The south coast is fronted by a pebble beach; the remaining coasts are precipitous.

(303) In 1955, breakers and discolored water were reported to extend about ½ mile offshore from the northeast end of the island.

(304) Asuncion Island is reported to be radar conspicuous from a distance of up to 48 miles.

(305) In 1969, it was reported that Asuncion Island lay 2 miles north of its charted position.

(306) In 1953, a bank, with a depth of 27 fathoms over it was reported to lie about 5½ miles southeast, and another, with a depth of 58 fathoms over it lies 16 miles south, of Asuncion Island.

(307) In 1945, depths of 52 and 60 fathoms were reported to lie about 85 miles west-southwest of Asuncion Island.

(308) Maug Islands (20°01'N., 145°14'E.), lying about 24 miles north-northwest of Asuncion Island, are comprised of three rocky, uninhabited islands; named North, East and West. This group has the appearance of a conical volcanic peak that has partially collapsed. North Island 748 feet high, is the highest but smallest. This island, together with East Island and West Island form a circle that encloses a lagoon. The steep sides of East Island are covered with grass and low bushes, and the higher slopes are covered with trees and coconut palms. A tower is on the summit of East Island. In 1958, the ruins of what appeared to be a fishing station were reported on the north end of the same island. In 1977, Maug Island was reported to be a fair radar target from distances up to 38 miles.

(309) 
 Local magnetic anomaly
(310) A local magnetic anomaly amounting to 3°W has been observed near East Island, and up to 7° near West Island.

(311) Tidal currents set easterly across the south entrance of the lagoon at a rate of ¾ knot during the flood. They set north through the entrance at a rate of ¼ knot during the ebb.

(312) 
 Depths-Limitations
(313) South Passage, about 600 yards wide and swept to depths of 59 feet and 48 feet, is the best passage leading into the lagoon. The northeast passage, which has been swept to 15 feet over a width of 150 yards, is not recommended, as it is fully exposed to the prevailing winds. The northwest passage is foul.

(314) 
 Anchorages
(315) In 1941, it was reported that safe anchorage could be found, in depths of 20 to 40 fathoms, about halfway between the west end of North Island and the southwest end of East Island; rock bottom.

(316) Vessels can anchor off the northern part of the west side of East Island.

(317) A vessel reported anchoring in 16 fathoms, black sand bottom, with the northern point of East Island bearing 056°. However, this anchorage was reported unsafe due to swells rolling in through the northeast passage.

(318) Supply Reef with a depth of 27 feet over it, lies about 10 miles northwest of North Island. Supply Reef is reported to be a circular reef of about 300-yard diameter, marked by discolored water and by breaking seas.

(319) 
 Chart 81086

(320) Farallon de Pajaros (20°32'N., 144°54'E.), lying about 36 miles north-northwest of Maug Islands, is the most northern of the Mariana Islands and it is an active volcano; its summit forming a regular cone of ashes 1,047 feet high.

(321) In 1974, a shoal, with a depth of 10 feet over it, was reported to lie 115 miles northwest of Farallon de Pajaros. Submarine volcanic activity has been reported in this vicinity.

(322) Farallon de Pajaros is reported to be visible from a distance of 40 miles; at night the crater glow can be seen for 15 miles. In 1967, it was reported that the volcano appeared as a well defined shadow at night from a distance of 27 miles. Farallon de Pajaros is radar conspicuous from a distance of 29 miles. The northern, southern, and eastern coast are precipitous. All coasts are rocky and steep-to. There is no anchorage. The island is barren, except near the high rock on the southeast side, where there is some coarse grass. Several smaller rocks, one of which is prominent, are located about 150 yards southeast of the high rock.

(323) Stingray Shoal having a depth of 8 fathoms, is located in approximate position 20°30'N., 142°26'E. The shoal has not been examined, and should be given a wide berth.